how's it going today guys welcome back to the channel hope you're having a great day so far so in this video today we're going to be covering an ultimate guide to investing in the stock market as a complete beginner now i'm going to be doing a full table of contents down below guys so you can skip ahead and move around to different sections but the very first thing i want to do here for those of you who may have no idea who i am is i want to talk to you a bit about my history with investing in the stock market what this youtube channel is here and a couple of more details like that however if you are somebody who is already familiar with me and my story and some of my investing experience go ahead and check down below for a time stamp to skip ahead to the beginning of the presentation here because i have a ton of information prepared for this video also guys i know this one is going to be a marathon video here potentially one of my longest videos to date so i would highly recommend uh grabbing a beverage if you need one turning off those distractions around you and also you may want to just bookmark this video just in case you lose track of it or need to come back to it at a later date also a real handy tip here for you if you're watching this video and then you have to stop what you can do is comment down below the time stamp where you left off in the video and then when you come back to it a few days later you can just do a control f search for your name and that'll lock your spot right there uh if you want to stop and come back to this video at a later date but anyways guys that being said let me go ahead and tell you quickly about who i am uh what i do with this youtube channel and more importantly my actual experience with investing in the stock market so essentially i started this youtube channel back in 2016 dedicated towards documenting my uh successes and failures with the stock market and i invested pretty heavily during the pandemic as well in 2020 i've documented the growth of my dividend portfolio to the point where that is now around 185 thousand dollars there and so i have a lot of money invested in stocks i have a lot invested in real estate as well as other businesses too and i am 26 years old as well so i am somebody who's been able to accelerate my wealth a lot um through participation in the stock market and also real estate in a few different avenues but by far the stock market has been massive in terms of how it has helped me to be successful and substantially grow my net worth early on in my 20s now what i always like to do too during videos like this is just tell you guys a couple of my best investments that i've made just so you know that i'm not someone here blowing smoke and i also want to make sure you're clear too that my strategy of investing is a more longer term strategy i don't do swing trading forex anything like that i am a long-term investor the majority of my stocks are dividend payers and i typically own stocks for at minimum one year or more which is generally what you know most experts would recommend especially for tax reasons and things like that but we're going to get into more of that later on in this video but earlier on in 2016 back when i started out my investing career one of my first picks ever at around six to seven dollars a share was a company called amd or advanced micro devices unfortunately i did not hold for this entire duration i sold way earlier on but i ended up buying amd back at six or seven dollars a share that stocks almost a hundred dollars per share now i did really well this year with um boeing stock during the pandemic i bought into jets right after warren buffett sold jets being an airline etf and we'll explain what that means shortly if you don't know what these terms are so the main thing that i tend to do with investing is i like to look for unjustified levels of pessimism in the market and that is something that comes from the teachings of warren buffett and benjamin graham in terms of just looking for an area of the economy where people are just selling the stock and getting out of it so i tend to look for those types of investments myself but you're going to kind of get a little bit of all different styles of investing in this video here so like i said i've got a couple hundred grand in the stock market i've made hundreds of thousands through investing whether it be real estate stocks etc and i also i used to be in the business of selling digital products at this point i'm almost fully out of that business i actually used to sell a course on investing in the stock market and i've had people make millions of dollars having gone through that course um it was not an expensive one and it's also all the information from that course i've actually repurposed for this video so i didn't really like the business model of selling courses uh when i started doing this many years ago it was not nearly as slimy as it is now so i actually started selling a course on investing back in 2017 and so uh earlier this year i made the decision to pull that course and just kind of get out of that business with you know stock market trainings just because you know charging people for stock information has become more and more sleazy uh in recent years based on the type of person doing this so i prefer to just offer free information instead so i went through the whole thing uh did all kinds of updating and basically reduced it by about 60 to 70 percent so i don't sell my investing course anymore and if you are somebody out there who did buy it understand you still get almost double the information in that course yourself so this is going to be like a highlights version of that course just to provide free value for you guys and also just to be fully transparent here guys i am not a financial advisor none of this here is financial advice uh you should always do your own due diligence and research before investing in anything out there while this course here or this video here is going to be a great supplement uh you're always going to want to get other information from other sources as well out there and also guys there's no pitch no sponsor none of that no affiliate here that i'm gonna plug here guys in this video it's just straight value um if you do want to give back to me for putting this video together i am gonna include a link down below with the best free stock promotions and i'm gonna update that every single month so if you are brand new to investing and you want to sign up for a brokerage account and you want to get some free money in the process and get free stocks often a thousand dollars or more of potential value based on a lottery system well check out that link down below that's a great way to give back to me because i may earn a commission if you use the links on that page but in terms of the description itself here guys no sponsors no courses nothing like that just here to provide you with straight value um so more on that later guys we'll talk more about that free stock resource later on for now let's just get locked in here you have a bit more background on myself and i want to start off by talking about the basics of investing in the stock market as a complete beginner in 2021 or years going forward so first of all let's cover what is a stock well a stock is actually a share of ownership in a real company and unfortunately this definition is sort of lost when people are trading stocks back and forth in a frenzy because of how easy it is to place trades and buy and sell shares of these companies at the snap of a fingers but even though people do transact stocks and trade them left and right it is still a small piece of fractional ownership of a real company now what's important to understand here is that when you become an owner of a company you're responsible for when the company does well but also if the company does not do well so when you are a shareholder and you own a share or shares of a company you're also holding a portion of the company's assets and liabilities because you have a fractional piece of ownership even though it's probably one ten thousandth of a percent or whatever it may be but it's just important to understand this that you own a real business and a real company as a shareholder and you have a portion of the company's assets as well as their liabilities now in terms of how much of that company you own the ownership stake is relative to the number of shares owned versus shares outstanding and shares outstanding just means the total number of shares out there of this given stock so if there were 10 000 shares and you had a thousand shares you would obviously own ten percent of that company and then another important thing to understand is that depending on the type of offering many of these uh you know stocks out there that you can purchase come with something called voting rights which allows you to vote in major company decisions and this makes a lot of sense the more shares you own the more power your vote has think of it this way it's pretty much like every one share you have allows you to cast one vote so if you have one share and someone else has 10 000 they're gonna have a larger say in whatever decision that company makes however as we're going to discuss later not all companies offer voting rights and that's an important thing to consider before making an initial investment in a publicly traded company so we understand the purpose for why people buy shares themselves typically they're looking to preserve their wealth or build their wealth through the stock market by participating in ownership of a real company but if we turn the table here and look at the company itself why do some companies offer shares publicly while others do not what is the purpose of shares and why do they exist well essentially companies offer shares as a means to raise capital or raise money for ongoing operations for the business or maybe they're looking to do an acquisition or a merger but essentially offering shares is just one of these tools that a company has in their toolbox as a method for raising capital uh from investors out there however there are many other ways that companies raise money all the time and that is typically by borrowing it from a bank or issuing corporate bonds and so it's probably not the most interesting thing in the world but since we're starting off at the basics guys we're going to get a clear distinction between the difference between a shareholder and a bondholder okay so essentially a bond is a debt obligation where you're essentially loaning some entity a set amount of money and the terms are spelled out on the bond and you're getting some amount back so based on the credit worthiness of the bond issuer there's going to be a set amount of yield that you earn from that bond some are fixed and some are variable but the big difference here is that as a shareholder you're an owner of the company as a bondholder you are basically just holding debt for them and you are a debt obligation that that company has um so bondholders receive interest on the principal loans however one of the most important things to understand between bondholders versus shareholders is that bondholders take priority during bankruptcy filing so if the company goes salt um unsolvent here and they go under and then there's a liquidation bond holders are going to get paid back first before shareholders because that is considered to be a debt obligation and debts have to be paid back before any owners of the company actually get paid shareholders are last for distribution of remaining assets and there's even something called preferred stock versus common stock which means that you know common shareholders or common stockholders are lowest on that list to receive money so unfortunately typically in the stock market if a company does in fact go bankrupt or go belly up oftentimes shareholders unless they sell their shares in the 11th hour they end up with nothing after all of the assets are sold off and the debts are paid back so here's a few more pointers here about bonds versus stocks so first let's cover bondholders bondholders do not see returns generated from rising profits so a bondholder is literally just a debt obligation that company has so if a bondholder issued or let this company borrow money and they used that money to go acquire another company and then the company that did that doubled in value the bondholder is going to see no gains from that he's just going to get that set rate of return or variable rate of return that was agreed upon when that debt was issued so they have no equity they have no skin in the game they are just kind of like a bank that loans them money and they're paid back on the terms of the bond uh they typically receive a set interest rate only for corporate bonds but there are variable rate bonds out there they're seen as a lower risk investment they are a crucial part of a well-rounded portfolio but when you're younger they're not nearly as important in fact these days a lot of financial experts say if you're 30 or younger you probably don't even need to have any bonds in your portfolio because of how conservative they are so historically they pay an annual return from five to seven percent so not nearly as much of a return as you typically see from real estate or other investments out there shareholders on the other hand profit via asset appreciation or the price of a share going up as a result of rising profits and then shareholders can also earn money through dividends which are just regular cash payments sent to shareholders they're seen as a higher risk investment because rather than just loaning the company money you're taking on a portion of their assets and liabilities because you're an owner you're also last to be paid if there is a bankruptcy type situation however because you are taking on more risk they historically pay an annual return of around eight to ten percent so there is a more upside to stocks than there is with bonds now the interesting thing here is that the bond market and the stock market typically behave very differently so when people have a portfolio out there which is just a bunch of investments a portfolio is just a bunch of investments that you have what you do is you put some of that money in stocks and some of it in bonds now a popular rule of thumb that people often follow is you uh take 120 minus your age and that's typically the amount of money that you would put into stocks and the rest would go in bonds so if we take me for example i just turned 26 that would mean that i should have only about uh four percent of my money in bonds with 96 in stocks and that's why at 26 years old i have zero percent of my portfolio in bonds once i turn 30 i might do 10 or 5 percent but for the time being i'm just 100 stocks real estate other stuff bonds just are not interesting to me and based on how much time i have to allow my money to grow they're just not a priority for me however if you are you know in your 30s 40s 50s bonds are going to be something that are a part of your portfolio and it's important to understand that you know they don't always go in the same direction in terms of value so for example let's say in a fair market value situation you were to put money into a portfolio of stocks and bonds and you decided to do 50 50.
Half of your money went in stocks you were an equity owner in these companies the other half went into bonds you basically loaned money and you were a you know about basically a bank for this company but let's say for example after that 50 50 allocation you know the stock market goes on a tear and the barn market stays relatively flat well over time what some people choose to do is to allocate less money into stocks and more into bonds this is typically what people do here favoring one asset over the other is if stocks are soaring a lot of people will rotate money out of stocks and into those bonds on the other hand let's say for example we're in a bear market and a bull market simply means stocks are going up bear market means stocks are going down oftentimes in a bear market you'll see people actually rotate out of bonds and put more into stocks because typically speaking during a market correction bonds are going to hold up better than stocks so even if you started off at that 50 50 some people depending on market conditions will actually allocate more or less to bonds versus stocks just based on the overall market and even if you do just simply decide to do one of those portfolio rules of 120 minus your age and let's say you're putting 10 percent in bonds 90 in stocks you still need to rebalance that portfolio because those numbers are going to change so even if you just want to set it and forget it you still need to check it and rebalance okay so what does rebalancing mean rebalancing means allocating more or less money to asset types so typically this is what a lot of people do during a bull market stocks often become overvalued so they should often carry less weight in your portfolio if you're looking to mitigate some of that risk or avoid it on the other hand in a bear market stocks typically become undervalued and at that point could often carry more weight in your portfolio allowing you to have more upside so that's typically how people use stock and bond allocations they either leave it at that and then rebalance once in a while or based on the overall market conditions they may rotate more or less money in and out of bonds and stocks just to try to mitigate or lessen some of that risk all right guys so that's the difference between shareholders and bondholders and stocks versus bonds and we understand now that stocks are a way for a company to raise capital but how do the stocks get there in the first place to where you can even open up an app on your phone and buy them well initially for the first time a stock ever trades they have to go through something called an ipo or initial public offering so let's go ahead and cover what that is now so a company attempts to raise capital via a public offering of shares in the company so typically you have a company in a startup mode that starts off pretty small then they raise funding they're still a private company but they raise funding uh through a couple of different rounds and then once they become large enough they typically have an ipo which is also a way for those early on investors to eventually sell some of their shares and you know get some of that money for their efforts because um what typically happens during an ipo is once that company goes public a lot of those early investors and people who started on with that company years ago assuming there's no lock up period they'll often sell off some of their shares and new investors who never had the opportunity before to buy those shares take up those shares because they want to buy into that company but it's kind of like the only good option a company has if they're looking to you know make money if you start up a company and you have a startup there's basically two exits you're either going to be acquired by a publicly traded or privately traded company that just wants to buy you or you're going to have an ipo and become a public company which would allow these early investors to have a means of making some money from their shares and being able to sell some so how does the ipo process work well you have somebody called an underwriter who works with the company to set a target price per share and the price for an ipo is based on the perceived interest in the public offering so for example airbnb had an ipo this year that was one that people were pretty interested in so the perceived interest was high and the share price was higher but the interesting thing here is that um you don't even have the opportunity to buy these shares at the ipo price that's because there's a different group of investors out there called institutional investors who unfortunately have the first choice to purchase shares and these shares are purchased at the actual ipo price so what you might find sometimes with a company that goes public is maybe you hear about it and they say the ipo price is going to be 30 and then that day you look up the stock and it's already trading at 40 because it jumped up a bunch you know 25 or whatever that is that's because only the institutional investors were able to buy shares at the ipo price then based on the demand on the market when the public when the retail investor is trying to buy that immediately pushes that price up to a higher level and then if some of these institutional investors or people within the company that don't have a lockup decide to sell you're buying them at that premium so unfortunately ipos can be pretty risky territory uh i tend to not really touch them uh because often times they come out of the gate red hot uh they trade for a premium and then they settle back down to or often below that original ipo price uh so once they trade on a secondary market that's when other retail investors can buy shares and stocks may trade higher on the secondary market as we said depending on the level of interest in that company so for a small investor it's very difficult to be invited into an ipo because it's typically like a billionaires club where you got to have a ton of money and you got to be one of these institutional investors willing to buy tons of shares at that ipo price it's also high risk territory because of the fact that these are companies that are not necessarily proven as public companies they've done well maybe as private companies but you don't have much of a operating history to go off of because a lot of private companies don't share a lot of information about earnings revenue etc um you also often see drastic price fluctuations uh as the market sets the price for the stock it's a brand new asset that's never traded before and so buyers and sellers are collectively uh through their buying and selling setting a price of what do people believe this uh this stock is actually worth per share so i added this little ryan's thoughts section here guys to include basically my opinion here and again this is not financial advice guys but this is pretty much what i follow myself most investors should avoid investing in a stock for a few months after the ipo unless you're like certain that you want to own this stock for like five to ten years typically i would not touch a stock a couple months after at ipos until it settles on a price also unless you can get in early wait for the price to settle and for the excitement to drop off because almost always it does people buy it they get tired of it and then they sell and then enough people sell that the price goes low enough and then you probably are going to get a much better deal on those shares look at ipos guys almost all of them tend to go down before they go back up so don't fomo into it just because you want to own the shares so just to show you guys a few examples here airbnb did go public at an ipo price of 68 but there was a lot of demand for it on the secondary market so once it was available for trading a lot of institutional investors and early investors unloaded shares but it traded at a massive premium starting off at 139 per share and while i did say a lot of stocks go down after ipo it's not always the case this one actually went up and it's now trading at 214 per share but the important distinction here is that during that ipo process airbnb only got 68 dollars per share from the institutional investor so even though the share price is now worth 214 that doesn't actually make airbnb any additional money it made money for the early investors or those institutional investors who bought shares during the ipo and then for an example here of an ipo that didn't go well at all just to show you how risky these can be is casper which is a sleep company i believe they sell the mattresses in a box anyway they had an ipo at twelve dollars per share and as soon as they hit the secondary market they traded below that ipo price which was not a good sign at all and then this thing went on a landslide down to it looks like maybe three bucks a share now it has recovered to about 10.
But that's how ipos sometimes they're great sometimes they could be your worst nightmare that's why as a beginner i don't think there's something that really should be on your radar unless it's a company you want to own like i said for like five or ten years and you don't care if it you know goes on a landslide in the short term all right guys so hopefully you have a good understanding of ipos now and you just understand where shares come from what they are and the difference between shares versus bonds we got like 200 slides here to cover with you guys so i am going to pick up the pace here a little bit because this is just some quick information here so let's now talk about stock symbol well a stock symbol is a unique series of letters used to identify a security and a security is just a fancy word for a stock a stock symbol is used to execute trading orders and stock symbols are often referred to as the ticker symbol or ticker tape if you've ever heard of those terms used before um you typically have two major exchanges that people use to trade stocks it's the new york stock exchange and the nasdaq new york stock exchange listed stocks have three letters or less while nasdaq listed stocks have four letters or more um that's nothing you need to know it's pretty useless trivial information but i don't know it might win you some brownie points at you know your next social gathering so that is a stock symbol these days you don't even really need to know it because most brokerages allow you to just search for the name of the company but we'll cover a few examples uh for example apple is aapl and then google there's two different types but it's like g-o-o-g or g-o-o-g-l and that's actually based on the voting some of those shares have voting rights and some do not but that's a little bit above and beyond the scope here but that's just a way to identify a stock now let's talk more about a stock exchange this is simply a market for buying and selling securities it connects a buyer with a seller so just like you'd have an open air market where a bunch of merchants come together who sell different things similar to a stock exchange a bunch of people virtually who own shares come together and trade shares back and forth based on whoever wants what and what they're looking to sell now oftentimes a stock is referred to as a listed stock and listed stocks are ones that trade on major exchanges and in america that's new york stock exchange or nasdaq that's all i trade i very rarely have ever traded a non-listed stock on a less desirable exchange um typically those are called penny stocks or something like that i don't touch them um and if when i have in the past i've lost a lot of money so i recommend sticking to listed stocks there's thousands to choose from penny stocks over-the-counter markets not very desirable exchanges foreign countries also have their own stock exchanges for example there's tx tsx which is the toronto stock exchange so here in the us we use new york stock exchange and nasdaq so that's the basics on a stock symbol and exchanges now let's talk a little bit more about the idea of a bull market one of my favorite sayings out there is that a bull market means prices are bull as in their you know because that's often what happens is prices are just ridiculous that's one of my favorite ways to remember this anyway a bit more information here during a bull market share prices are rising most investors are buying bullish investors make money from rising stock prices similar to the way that a bull attacks you can see this guy over here getting attacked that's why it's referred to as a bull market you see bull markets during strong economic times that is because companies profits are typically rising unemployment is falling and hopefully wages are rising as well and it kind of all trickles down hopefully you know and then that results in everyone doing well and companies doing well people spending more money and then just share prices going up over time uh quick thought here guys gdp which is referred to as gross domestic product is growing which is an indicator of the overall size of an economy looking at their total goods and services so if you ever hear the word gdp being thrown around just think of that as the total value of the goods and services that a company provides so if that's growing typically that's a sign that we are in a bull market that being said here's a drawing of one we've had a pretty wild bull market run here with just a quick blip here during the pandemic but all of these highlighted areas are examples of bull markets that we saw so we had one that started in the late 90s we had one in the early 2000s after the housing market crashed that was the longest of history and then we had this quick black swan event here and now we're back up to again kind of the same trajectory trajectory we were prior which is uh pretty wild how quick the markets came back anyway now let's talk about bear markets a bear market is when share prices are falling most investors are selling or they're just out of the market entirely bearish investors make money from falling stock prices similar to how a bear would attack with their claw so if you hear somebody saying i'm bullish on that stock that means they want and think it's going to go up if they're bearish on that stock they want it to go down or they expect it to go down and they're making money from that stock price going down typically through something called a short sale but we'll cover more about that later do we get into short selling uh yeah briefly okay so we typically see a bear market happen during poor economic times or again like a weird major life event here like we saw with this pandemic that was just something nobody saw coming uh company profits will be falling unemployment will be rising and wages will be flat or falling the primary triggers of a bear market are investor sentiment and economic cycles what i mean by that is the general emotion that investors have is typically what can trigger a bear market because bear markets happen when there's a lot more selling than there is buying so if investor sentiment shifts towards that of fear and people are afraid of holding stocks and they want to get out of them that alone is enough to often trigger a bear market or at the very least a correction also federal interest rates and tax rates can result in economic expansion or contraction you've probably heard of something called the federal funds rate this is the rate at which the federal reserve loans money to banks and by adjusting that rate they can actually basically stimulate or pump the brakes on the overall economy however we have lowered that as low as possible uh where interest rates are lower than they've ever been for this long of a period of time in history so we don't really have much of a safety net anymore but in the past we used to see higher interest rates and then that rate would change based on the overall economic conditions as a means of controlling the overall economy so as you can see here the bear markets are times when like we said share prices are falling we saw one around 2001 2007 and this one right here was a quick one so it was kind of hard to highlight but we did actually have a short bear market uh in 2020 based on that global pandemic so the next thing i want to explain in a bit more detail here is something called investor sentiment which is pretty much the overall feeling of the market because as much as people like to complicate the stock market and make it about all of these different things to tell you the truth the stock market is all about emotion and it's pretty much a visual representation of the emotions of fear and greed playing out before your eyes fear indicates that a bear market may happen soon or it may not at all but that's just a time when people are fearful of the valuations of stocks and they would rather have cash than have money in stocks they would feel safer in cash which is certainty a sell-off can often turn expectations into a reality so that's kind of a weird thing to wrap your head around but oftentimes the mere thought of a market crash if enough people are worried about it could actually trigger one based on people actually deciding to sell their shares and unload um just if enough people are fearful and do that that can often be the outcome and the reality so here's some truth here about the stock market that i want to hit you with that you may not be ready for but as a beginner i want you to be understanding of these things so that way you have realistic expectations with what the stock market can and can't likely do for you so most beginners often expect unrealistic returns from the stock market period they want to make 15 20 25 returns year after year they want to be a day trader or a swing trader this is how most people including myself enter the market and most people are just not successful with strategies like that and if you're expecting consistent 15 20 25 returns for many years going forward that's just not really a realistic goal to have with the stock market but as a result because people are looking for outsized or unrealistic returns many make the mistake of speculating such as betting on a penny stock looking for like a 100 return in the short term so one of my favorite quotes here is from warren buffett it says the stock market is a device for transferring money from the inpatient to the patient so what he's saying there in my opinion is that the stock market is a long-term game here and those who make short-term trades are simply transferring money to those patient long-term investors also guys investing is 100 a marathon not a sprint so don't treat it like a sprint short-term investing and speculating is largely relying on luck which is not a sustainable or repeatable strategy and also based on the emotions of fear and greed most investors out there buy and sell at exactly the wrong time based on these emotional triggers so now i want to cover something called market cap or market capitalization this is simply the total value of a publicly traded company based on the price per share so the best way to explain this is to simply understand where the formula for market cap comes from and you simply take outstanding shares or the total number of shares out there multiplied by a set price per share which is whatever the current market quote is for that share that's going to give you the current instantaneous market cap or value of that company so market cap is used to determine the overall size of a company based on that perceived market value uh which is set by the overall feelings of emotion and of fear and greed that these individuals who own shares actually have those emotions play out every single day prices fluctuate and so all throughout the day the market cap of these publicly traded companies fluctuates too so even though the business of apple might not change on a given day it's entirely possible to see the value of that company fluctuate billions of dollars with nothing actually happening just based on investor sentiment surrounding that stock and the overall market so that being said stocks are broken up into five main categories based on market capitalization and i have a couple of examples here just so you guys can reference what these companies are so first of all you have micro cap which is companies worth under 300 million dollars one example here being sally beauty uh small cap companies have a value of 300 million to 3 billion for example we have amc uh you know popular stock people have been looking at with these uh reddit users you know discussing these stocks and all the frenzy surrounding them a mid cap stock ranges from 3 to 15 billion um pen national gaming is an example of this large cap ranges from anywhere from 15 to like 100 billion that would be a company like twitter and mega cap is like 100 billion dollars plus that's like alphabet which is the parent company of google now there are no set rules on what is considered micro small mid etc but um this is just a generally accepted guideline that i was taught and that i've found myself but some people may disagree and say oh under 5 billion is small cap in there's no reason to split hairs just understand that smaller companies are usually worth couple 100 million or a few billion versus something like google which is multi 100 billion if not a trillion dollar company at this point in time so typically that's a good way of when you're looking at a stock understand are you looking at a micro cap small cap large cap you know what type of valuation are we looking at on this company in terms of what does everyone think the company is worth and later on we're going to talk about how to tell if a company is overvalued or undervalued it has very little if anything to do with the market capitalization so don't write off the bat just think that alphabet is way more expensive than twitter it may just be a larger company that commands a higher valuation so now let's cover some of the characteristics of stocks that fall in these categories okay micro cap is typically the smallest and riskiest stocks on the market that are going to have the most fluctuations small cap companies tend to have a little bit less of that movement still a lot but often have huge growth potential but there's still a ton of risk there because they're smaller less proven companies mid cap stocks you often get a blend of safety of the larger companies as well as some of the growth potential of small companies so mid cap is an area i actually like quite a bit in terms of looking for some growth and some stability and then large cap stocks lower risk stocks for those looking for appreciation and dividends almost all of my money is in large cap blue chip dividend payers i'll explain what that means later but for one of my thoughts here guys uh in my opinion most investors should avoid micro-cap stocks maybe even small caps and be cautious understanding there's a much higher degree of risk involved and you're just more likely to see those drastic price fluctuations which as a beginner that's kind of the opposite of what you want to see when you get started next up here let's cover the pe or price to earnings ratio well the p e ratio measures the current market price per share relative to the earnings per share that a company has the best way i like to explain it is how much you are paying for one dollar of exposure to company earnings so for example if a company had a pe of 30 that means that you're paying a value of 30 for one dollar of that company's earnings potential uh and so that p e ratio is a good metric for understanding if a company is over or undervalued based on the market and based on competitors uh easy calculation here you take the market value per share divided by earnings per share and that's going to give you the price to earnings ratio the p e ratio is a comparison tool it is not a one size you know fits all thing where you just have to check this and it's going to tell you there's a lot to valuing stocks but the p e ratio is a good tool to utilize among others uh it's typically used to compare stocks within the same sector or area of business and that's just based on you know levels of normality that you see within different sectors or industries for example um utility stocks often trade at a lower pe where tech stocks trade at a higher pe so if you were comparing the pe of a tech stock to the pe of a utility stock it's not going to be a very helpful comparison but if you compared the p e ratio of two utility stocks it's going to be a much more useful comparison tool so a high p e can indicate the stock is overvalued usually two if it's higher than the industry or the peers and a low p e can indicate the stock is undervalued but like i said it's not a one size fits all or a one-stop shop because a company that is not generating earnings often has no p e ratio or a negative p e so it's not useful at all for looking at companies that don't have earnings or that are not profitable because um it's just not going to be a helpful metric also a company could have a low p e but if earnings are also going down that means that as the share price is going lower that pe is actually staying the same so that's referred to as a falling knife something we're going to talk about later but just understand that we recognize what the pe is we look at it as a comparison tool but it's not a one-stop shop and low p e does not always and rarely does it mean that something is a streaming bot so just to give you a few examples here of some companies and their corresponding p e ratios apple has a p e ratio of 36.49 microsoft is 38.49 so if you compare those two you know that's pretty similar but apple is actually looking like a little bit of a better deal right now than microsoft in i own both in my dividend portfolio ibm on the other hand has a p e ratio of 19.39 obviously a company i also own myself too but one that people are not nearly as excited about or involved in a different business you know for the most part um although ibm does a lot of cloud computing that's what microsoft and apple do so i have a lot of ibm in my portfolio and i'm hoping that's one of these stocks that you know over the next five or ten years can get up there with the likes of microsoft and apple uh and then hewlett packard i don't even know what that company is doing anymore but they're coming in at a p e of 13.73 so investing 36.49 in apple stock will expose you to one dollar of apple earnings as of february 16 2021 which is when we made this slide here so that's the best way to look at a p e ratio and essentially what that means is if you were buying microsoft you're paying basically 38.50 for a dollar of earnings but if you buy apple you're only paying 36.50 so it's slightly cheaper so that's kind of how i like to use the p e ratio is comparing stocks within the same sector or industry that are doing a similar business operation next up let's talk about volume volume is how many shares of a particular stock were traded that day uh and then we also have another term called liquidity which is the degree of ease associated with exchanging that asset for cash so high volume stocks stocks that trade on a high volume which is typically any of those listed stocks on the new york stock exchange or nasdaq they have a high degree of liquidity because it's pretty easy to exchange your shares for cash and you have a good idea what you're going to get back for it based on the quoted price you will have if there's low trading volume you're going to have poor liquidity because it's not nearly as easy to transfer that money into uh you know cash out of that stock um my thoughts on this as far as using volume as an indicator look for volume in excess of the normal trading range so that's one of the things i like to do is if i'm looking at a stock i'll take a peek at their average trading volume and if you see a day where volume is way higher either in the red or in the green you know it's just an interesting indicator that tells you there's more people trading this stock today than we typically see on an average trading day so volume is just how many shares of these stocks trade hands each day during the market hours and also we do cover this later but um market hours are basically 9 30 a.m to 4 p.m eastern standard time the markets closed on holidays um and some random holidays too the market is closed for like uh president's day and random ones like that sometimes um so that's when you can trade shares some brokers offer pre-market or extended hours trading but most people exchange their shares during that 9 30 a.m to 4 p.m est window so just for an example here looking at a volume chart we're looking at pen national gaming and at the bottom that chart is actually showing us trading volume and you can see where you might be able to use this as an indicator if you were looking to you know do a little bit of technical analysis or looking at the charts of this stock so we highlighted some sections here and drew some arrows you can see where higher than usual trading volume often resulted in an upward move of the stock however it's not the most useful indicator out there because typically when you see the move in the volume the price has already moved and so the there's not usually a great way to like jump in on a stock but if you are keeping track of volume and you see you know purchasing volume or green volume you know going up day after day it might be a positive sign in the long run for that stock so now we'll talk about my favorite subject of the stock market which is dividends i am a dividend investor myself that's where almost all of my stock uh portfolio is dividend stocks so let's cover what that is here and i'm not going to go into an insane amount of detail here because i actually have a full 52-minute step-by-step video about dividend investing i'm gonna put a card up in the corner so we're gonna breeze through it here and cover a lot of important details but if you want more information i would highly recommend that video as a supplement for this you know after you know you go through the whole thing here so that that's available if you need it dividends are regular cash payments made to the holder of a given stock not all stocks pay dividends it's up to the company to decide whether or not they want to many large or mega cap stocks pay dividends to shareholders and investors looking for dividends uh from payment dividend payments from stocks are often called income investors dividend stocks are often large well established companies they're large or mega cap typically so there's not usually as much risk associated with these stocks as there is with some of these smaller growth stocks so that's kind of why i like dividend investing it's uh easy it's pretty passive i don't have to worry about the stocks i own i own you know titans of america and the world in terms of these companies that have been around forever so that's why i like having my money in dividend stocks so as a lower risk investment they sometimes offer a lower return but um the only thing i am going to say is you can do a style which i do of dividend growth investing where you invest in companies that have both income potential and growth potential so you get the best of both worlds income investors can be paid in two different ways number one asset appreciation or buying low and selling the share price for a higher price later or regular cash payments in the form of dividends so those dividends are often reinvested into buying more shares that allows you to earn compound interest which we'll talk about soon but i also like dividends because they can kind of hedge against a loss so let's say for example you bought shares of a company with a five percent dividend yield and maybe that that share price went down 10 right well through that next year you're gonna get five percent back in dividends that are potentially going to go back into shares of that company meaning you're kind of slowly bailing yourself out with those dividends so that's another reason i like them they're kind of a cool hedge against a loss and even if you own a company where the share price is down it's still nice to get those dividend payments and know that you're still getting something for your money so just to show you an example of how stocks can pay you in two different ways here we have proctor and gamble okay it's another stock i own in my dividend portfolio and so let's say you bought shares on january 3rd 2020 when they were trading for 122.58 per share well on january 4th 2021 roughly one year later they're trading at 137.82 so your return there if you were to sell this share or however many shares you owned there um you know you would have a 12.4 percent return owning procter and gamble for one year but on top of that while you owned that stock you also earned dividends and in 2020 they paid a dividend of 316 per share it was actually paid quarterly at 79 cents per quarter so the yield on that stock is actually 2.5 percent which is pretty attractive that's why i own procter and gamble so let's say for this one year period you owned 500 shares of procter and gamble well you would have earned seven thousand six hundred twenty dollars of appreciation from buying low and selling high but since that company also paid dividends you earned another fifteen eighty in dividends so you would have made a total of nine thousand two hundred dollars this is why i like stocks that can pay me in two different ways that's why i love dividend stocks so now let's cover a bit about risk and reward which is probably not something that you want to talk about but it's one of the most important foundational pieces of investing because every investor out there has a different level of risk tolerance and risk tolerance is essentially how you react to losing money uh and you should just start thinking about that in your own life like how do you react when you go to the casino with a hundred dollars and you leave with nothing do you care do you get emotional do you cry like that same emotion that you feel at the st uh you know the casino if you lose money it's going to be a similar feeling if you lose money with stocks some people are great with risk and they don't really care if they lose money other people are very conservative and in the thought of losing money stresses them to their core and so it's important to be honest with yourself when determining this risk tolerance and age plays a large factor in the investors risk tolerance because a young person could have a very aggressive risk tolerance as they are decades from retirement so if they make bad financial decisions when they're younger they still have many decades ahead to undo those decisions and hopefully make money from other investments whereas a person five years from retirement would have a very low risk tolerance as they will be drawing from their investments in the near future this older person needs the money in the next five years whereas a younger person is probably not going to need that money for like 40 50 years they can afford to take on more risk and give their money a long time to trend upward so one of my thoughts here don't confuse investing with your desire to gamble one of the great lessons from benjamin graham's the intelligent investor remember that a fifty percent loss requires a one hundred percent gain uh kind of a funny statistic there so if you buy something and it does it goes down 50 you need a 100 return just to get back where you started which again something to consider before you put a lot of money into some of these speculative or risky gambles so just to show you an example here of a high risk stock that paid off and to be clear i'm not saying that tesla is a gamble um at this price you got to make your own judgment on that i would personally say it's a little bit uh insane the valuation but i don't own shares of tesla but to those who do you know i i like the company i don't really have too much against them but you know the the price is the only thing to me so i'm not saying this is a gamble it might be now but this was a high risk high return potential stock and you can see over the last year it's up an incredible 375 percent it went from 170 per share up to 800 bucks which is unbelievable however high risk can also be bad here's a high risk stock that went bad it's called next cure i don't even know what this company was to be honest with you but in one year it went down 70.4 percent so you would need more than a 100 return at this point on this stock just to get back where you started almost looking like a 3x or or return potentially just to get back to that you know 50 dollars per share so high risk is fun when it works in your favor when it works against you it's horrible so just understand that if you are taking risks this will play out as a reality at some point in time it's inevitable that you're gonna put a bunch of money in a stock and it's gonna drop like this and it may just be a learning experience for you alrighty guys so it's another day here we got some new energy for this video unfortunately i did have a bit of an injury yesterday so i'll be wearing a cast of some sort on my hand nothing cool didn't get into a fist fight or anything like that guys just a injury to the hand so just wanted to mention it and so that's what's going on here but everything is totally fine um the show must go on that being said guys so let's jump right back into it by talking about a very important document called the earnings report which is one of the biggest distinctions out there between a publicly traded company and a private company because private companies are not required to disclose their earnings and revenue in certain documents like that whereas once a company becomes public they are required to do this quarterly earnings report where they're sharing financial documents and updates with investors so public companies file a quarterly earnings report and quarterly earnings are used by investors to determine the overall financial health of a company but not only that it also helps you to track the overall health of the company too because as important as it is to do your due diligence at the beginning when you invest you also want to make sure that you're keeping up with these companies you're investing in to make sure that their overall situation is not changing and one of the best ways to do that is by looking at these quarterly earnings reports or they also have an annual report in most cases which may be even more of a uh synopsis that would be less to go through uh long-term investors tend to spend a lot of time reading earnings reports to be familiar with their investments in the companies that they're investing in also analysts make estimated guesses on the quarterly results of a company and they will also issue um what they call recommendations whether it be a buy hold or sell now i personally don't pay very much attention at all to what these analysts are saying about a stock i tend to just make my own decisions based on my own research but especially as a beginner it's something to at least keep an eye on is the overall analyst recommendations surrounding a stock but you have these analysts who make an educated guess about how they expect a company to perform typically looking at metrics like revenue or earnings per share or things like that and then if you see a company beat those expectations the share price usually goes higher unless it's already priced in but we'll talk about that later or if the earnings fall below expectations typically we'll see a move lower as a result but the stock market is totally erratic and emotional at times and i've seen times when a company has stellar earnings and the stock still drops maybe because all that was already priced in so up next here on this guys we are looking at uh palantir stock here just for an example of what can happen when a company has earnings that disappoint shareholders so i'm not familiar with this stock i don't actually own it i had my assistant here put it in the slide for an example but palantir had quarter one earnings and you can see they came out and this stock went from you know 31.80 per share down to 28.38 down 11 percent but even if you look at the five day move here you know this stock went from 38 per share down to 28.
So especially with a stock that is a tech related stock i believe this is a cyber security company you're going to expect to see more wild and drastic moves but it's just important to understand that the earnings report can certainly have an effect like this on a given stock and then just to show you an example of positive earnings we know that twitter posted quarter one earnings that were positive a lot of social media companies have been doing really well during the pandemic as people are looking for things to do and on the day they posted earnings the stock went from 59.87 up to 67.77 so it jumped up over 13 percent and if you look at the one month chart here you know twitter is doing exceptional here they've gone from about 47 dollars a share up to around 75 so stocks like this can have really quick moves but earnings reports certainly do have a major effect on companies that you invest in so the next thing i want to talk about here is another important stock market principle and we've kind of alluded to this already in our discussions about the emotions of fear and greed controlling the stock market but instead of using the word fear i want to instead introduce the word supply and instead of using the word greed we're going to use the word demand because it's essentially the same factors at play here but we can use these words interchangeably the price of anything out there is determined by the market supply and the market demand i'm sure we're all familiar with this where you know there's been things before that we're trying to buy that we have a hard time buying and then maybe the price goes higher because it's a highly sought after item like for example um right now the nfts are very popular so let's talk about nba top shop the only reason the price for those things is as high as it is is because of the market demand and the market supply the demand far outweighs the supply in this case and that is why those prices have gone higher and higher however you can easily hit a tipping point at any point where the demand drops and the supply hits the market and that's when you can have that sell-off so the emotions of fear and greed are sort of the precursors to supply and demand supply is going to be from fear that's when a supply hits the market because people are fearful of something and they don't want it anymore whereas demand is greed people want as much of it as they can get they don't care what it costs they just want this asset that is demand so supply is the amount of a commodity product or service available to the market for purchasing whereas demand is the desire of the buyers for this product or good or service high demand and low quantity or supply is going to create this emotion or it comes from this emotion of greed and that's going to drive the price up low demand and high supply is going to result in fear and this is going to lower the price or fear can trigger low demand in high supply they sort of work interchangeably here but these are the emotions that we have at play controlling the stock market day in and day out and the advantage here is that since we're always seeing these fluctuations while it is difficult to unearth hidden value in the market if not impossible with how efficient the market is today it's entirely possible to strategically time your investments and maybe if you decide you're looking to add some shares of apple to your portfolio for example maybe you decide to do it on a day when there's a lot of fear in the market where the nasdaq is selling off and maybe you're getting you know a slightly better price you know by purchasing on that day so even if you don't plan on doing any short-term moves you can look at the overall market sentiment and you can also kind of time things and try to do your purchasing on like a red day in the market for example so right here guys i want to show you a visual representation of this supply and demand looking at tesla stock so back in january we saw the share price run up to around it looks like 900 dollars per share and then it sold off down to about 800.
That is because collectively during that period of time more investors were selling than there were investors buying there was too much supply hitting the market and not enough demand to purchase it however at a certain point when the stock starts selling off more and more people are interested in buying it and then we get to this point where when it hit around 800 per share enough buyers stepped up to the plate and said we're gonna buy now right they got greedy rather than fearful enough people started buying it changed the sentiment surrounding the stock and it went back up almost to where it was prior so you're always going to see supply and demand or fear and greed impacting individual stocks as well as entire sectors or industries and entire markets so the next thing i want to talk about here is something that nobody likes to discuss and that is the concept of inflation so there's a lot of talk about this right now based on all the money printing that happened in 2020 so inflation is like a buzzword right now we're certainly seeing it with certain uh you know goods and services or things we're looking to purchase for example construction material and lumber is really expensive right now and a lot of people are saying this is a bad sign for hyperinflation while i don't think that is the case it is simply something that you know is being discussed more now and something to be aware of as an investor we're not going to spend a ton of time here but just to cover this here inflation is less purchasing power of the dollar over time uh the simplest way to explain this is imagine the cost of you know popcorn at the movie theaters in 1930 versus 1970 versus 2010 versus today we would all probably expect that price to go up as it did and so essentially what this means is you're getting the same amount of popcorn but it's costing you more money because the buying power of each dollar goes down every single year so the main purpose of investing your goal number one should be to simply outpace inflation to protect the buying power of your money because at the end of the day savers are losers while i do have an emergency fund and i recommend having some liquid savings um you know you can't save all of your money in the bank or you're going to lose the buying power and you're not going to be growing or protecting your buying power it's going to be going down over time so inflation is the enemy here we want to avoid that you do want to have some cash for emergencies but other than that i try to keep myself pretty heavily invested that way i know i'm at least outpacing inflation if not you know growing the buying power of my money through gains through investment that's pretty simple to understand there guys next up we're going to talk briefly about saving money in a bank account okay so most people simply save money in a bank account very few people out there actually invest it's it's pretty sad having an emergency fund is very important um but i want to explain to you how even though you know you are saving and earning some amount of interest you're still losing money sadly uh since 2000 the average rate of inflation has been 2.2 percent per year meanwhile the average interest rate on a bank account is around 0.05 percent so even though you are earning some amount of money and interest the amount you're losing based on inflation or the lessening of the buying power of your money far exceeds that level of interest that you're earning so the net loss here is actually a loss of 2.15 per year so if you had a hundred grand that's like you know roughly two thousand dollars of buying power that you would lose over the course of one year based on the current rate of inflation that we've seen in the modern era alrighty guys so now that we have a lot of the uh foundational stuff out of the way i want to start talking about some of the nitty-gritty here and the first thing we're going to discuss is how to actually purchase a stock because it's not like going out there and buying a new pair of shoes or something like that where you just go to a store and say hey this is what i want it's a little bit different because you're utilizing something called a stock broker so the first step to investing in the stock market outside of you know taking care of your debts paying off high interest credit card debt and setting aside an emergency fund which i'm assuming everyone has done that if you followed any you know finance videos in the past um that's always the first step but beyond that your first step to actually invest in the market is choosing a brokerage now i actually am part owner of a personal finance blog called investingsimple.com i'm going to link up to it down in the description below that's what we do over there is we do apples to apples comparisons of all the top investing apps and try to help people understand in the simplest way possible you know what avenues they may want to choose based on their investing goals just like this video here has been hopefully very simple and easy to understand that's also how we write our content so you're more than welcome to check that out investingsimple.com uh or you can put it right in your browser and bookmark it for later but we have a lot of helpful resources over there in terms of choosing your brokerage also guys like i said i am gonna put that link down below with all of the current best free stock promotions if you've enjoyed this video so far and you've gotten value out of it and you feel like using one of my affiliate links i may earn a commission if you click on that link and use any of those links on the page however as i said earlier that is never expected but always appreciated if you want to you know give back to me just by clicking on a link but there's going to be no upsell no ask at the end of this video guys i'm just here to you know give you five six years of information all packed up here in a neat little resource that i hope will help people to accelerate their wealth through the stock market so anyway brokers facilitate buying and selling of securities and you need to go through a stock broker in order to transact on the stock market so it's similar to a car dealership whereas if you wanted to buy a ford you go to a ford dealer uh your stock broker is like a stock dealer so it's like going to the ford dealer you wouldn't just call forward and order a truck um however that might not be the case in 10 15 years because more and more we're shifting to that getting rid of middlemen and dealerships and just saving money so as it stands now we still go to a dealership to buy a ford f-150 but that may change down the road not to mention the broker also provides you with a very important thing which is a trading platform which is a user interface that allows you to direct the brokerage to place those trades on your behalf and actually execute orders now the good news is if you are new to the investing realm here you've picked a really good time because you know it is as far back or as recent as five years ago rather we used to have to pay commissions to these brokers when i started investing i did so with a scott trade account and i was paying six or seven dollars per trade and this was just normal right now there are dozens of free stock trading apps out there um and some of them appeal to more beginners while some are for more advanced traders there's literally so many options out there guys um definitely many to choose from like i said i'm gonna have an updated list down below of the best promotions i'm gonna check it every month and make sure that it's current that way you know you're getting the best possible free stock promotions and because all of these companies are competing with each other there's a lot of venture capital and investment flowing into this fintech space so a lot of them are offering free stocks or free bonuses so it's really a good time to take advantage of this if you want to use some of these free solutions however that being said most if not all of them have no storefront locations or you know direct or manual account management not to mention the customer service is pretty lousy uh so you know my recommendation is always if you want a really good brokerage you know you can't go wrong with something like charles schwab i'm not affiliated with them however what you may find with a brokerage like schwab is they offer so much that it's complicated to get up and running whereas these newer commission free apps schwab is commission free too but some of these newer apps spend more money and time on user interface and user experience and they're just way easier and they're just way easier to use um and also another thing you should be aware of is that many of these brokerages earn money through pfof payment for order flow um and they also offer margin accounts and other features like paid membership so they're not operating a charity they're operating a real business they have revenue streams to make money uh they just decide to make money in other ways rather than just charging commissions to customers so it's a really cool time to be investing um there's a ton of different ones out there and like i said if you want to compare them would recommend highly investingsimple.com or if you want to take a look at the promotions that's going to be down below and just to keep an eye on you know what type of free stock offerings and things like that are available uh now we'll talk about account types okay and for beginners this is where i would recommend and this is a cash account this is where securities are always paid in full and remember securities is just a fancy word for stocks what this means is that any money you have in your account is money you've deposited you're not borrowing any money and when you buy stocks they're paid in full you know you're not borrowing any money cash accounts do not have strict credit requirements because investments are paid in full and no margin is extended here are the typical requirements for opening up a cash account first of all proof of identity they're also going to ask you for your employer social security number address etc because this is a taxable asset here and your investment activity is 100 reported to the irs so we'll talk more about taxes later but that's why they verify employment get your social etc just so they have all their ducks in the row with what they have to do in terms of regulatory agencies also make sure when you're opening the account you specify what type of account you are looking to open um we're going to talk about margin accounts now probably something that you don't want i don't use margin um but some people i've heard of have accidentally opened up a margin account not knowing what it is margin accounts allow you to borrow money against the investments in your account and then use that money to buy more stocks so with a cash account if you invested a hundred dollars in a given stock it's because you had a hundred dollars to put into that stock whereas with a margin account you might only have let's say fifty dollars but the um brokerage might give you another fifty dollars to borrow using your other stock as collateral so i'm sure you can understand how this gets dangerous you're essentially magnifying losses potentially and gains but magnifying losses is more so what i want to leave you with as a message here you're charged interest based on the line of credit every brokerage has their own rates this allows you to increase leverage on a stock which simply means you have control of more shares and it also will allow you to short sell if you do want to bet against a stock i do not short sell the only thing i would recommend is a put option instead of doing a short i've never short shorted a stock i don't think i ever will i've never even bought a put but that's the only way i would ever try to bet against a stock is through a put option not shorting because there's the potential therefore infinite loss which we'll discuss later margin is typically capped at 50 percent which would mean that if you had a hundred grand in your margin account that would give you about 200 grand of leveraged buying power however for every dollar that you use above 100k you're going to pay interest monthly so it can be very dangerous 10 out of 10 would not recommend for a beginner and honestly most people should not use margin i don't use margin not recommended but it's important to understand what it is that way you don't end up with a margin account by accident so now we're going to cover some of the basic order types associated with placing trades in the stock market so in order to buy or sell a stock on the market you need to execute something called a market order and each brokerage is going to offer different order types now you'll find most of the same order types across all the major brokerages and to be honest with you guys i mostly just use market orders which we'll explain in a minute so if this looks confusing don't worry and understand that the majority of people are just going to do a market order and this is probably information that you don't need to know but if you are curious you know stick around for this little section here some trading platforms offer sophisticated order types that may interest advanced traders however one of my thoughts here most beginners only need the basic order types and familiarizing yourself with market order types is crucial to your success um just to understand what's available out there because the thing is i've heard of this happening a lot where people are placing a order for a stock or they're trying to place an order and they're trying to get something to happen and they get a different outcome so they screw up an order and they end up buying when they think they're selling or vice versa so i know it sounds stupid but like it happens all the time where maybe you go to sell a stock and you accidentally doubled your position because you're not paying attention to your orders so let's cover that now and and i definitely recommend just understanding these order types so you're familiar if you're you know looking to place an order first of all we have market order like i said this is what i use 99 percent of the time if not all the time for the most part with a market order you can place this order during market hours only as we said that's 9 30 a.m to 4 p.m eastern standard time closed on holidays and that's monday through friday during a market order you're buying or selling a stock at the current market price whatever the price is at that instant point in time and that is going to be based on something called the bid and the ask price now i'm not going to get too deep in the weeds here with this guys but the bid in the ask price this ties in with the level of liquidity of a stock if you're trading listed stocks on the major exchanges which in the us here is new york stock exchange and nasdaq there's enough people actively trading shares that you typically know about what you're going to pay or what you're going to sell for when you're transacting however with more thinly traded stocks on like you know pink sheets or things like that or over-the-counter exchanges you can get a much wider spread which is the difference between the bid price and the ask um it's kind of like on an actual like auction environment where you have maybe an ask for what someone's looking to sell for and then people bidding on it with less desirable exchanges there could be a huge difference like maybe someone's asking a dollar ninety but the bid is a dollar forty so if you're looking to sell or buy it's going to be at any price between a dollar forty and a dollar ninety which is a wicked spread whereas with a listed stock you might only have a spread of a couple fractions of a penny again that's another advantage of just sticking to listed stocks ensuring that you have the liquidity if you do in fact you know need to transact and you know you know you you're going to be aware of prior what roughly what you're going to pay or what you're going to receive for those shares so market orders are used when orders are to be filled immediately during market hours when it's open and your order will be placed at the best available price but may fluctuate from the price that you see based on that bid and the ask price referred to as the spread so now we'll talk about a limit order briefly that's pretty much if i'm not using a market order it's a limit order and i don't use pretty much any of the other order types a limit order is in order to buy or sell a specified number of shares at a specified price so for example a limit buy order could mean that you're buying at a price below the current market price or a sell could be above the current market price so with a limit buy you could say hey the stock is 1.85 i want to buy at a dollar eighty so if it reaches that price it's going to execute the order whereas a limit sell would mean okay the stock's at a dollar eighty five you might have a limit sell that says if it hits a dollar ninety unload all of my shares but if it doesn't hit those prices the order does not execute also limit orders can be issued in two different ways there's trading day only which would be only this current trading day or there's a gtc order which is good till cancelled so let's say for example you owned a stock this is where people sometimes will use a limit order let's say you have a stock that you own and you have a price target in mind of hey this is what i'd be willing to sell it for so you could do a gtc good till canceled limit order and just have it hanging out there and then if that price ever climbs to your target price the order will execute and maybe you have a limit order in place to you know take some if not all profits off the table i personally don't do that i don't really use limit orders but some people do that as sort of a way to automatically take money off the table and get some of their emotions out of play here with the market so guys there are more order types out there but to be honest with you i don't want to waste your time there's a stop limit and a stop loss order and a lot of brokerages offer that but i don't use them personally and i don't want to waste your time with something i don't use so now we're going to move on to another important topic again one that people don't like to talk about but it's good to understand and that is something called fund settlement so stock trades settle three business days following the trade date meanwhile options trades settle in one business day your brokerage oftentimes allows you to reinvest unsettled funds on a good faith agreement that you will hold the securities until the fund settlement date because truth be told if you sell a stock even if that cash enters your account which it will instantaneously the funds are not settled it takes three business days for the fund to for the funds to settle and the trade to settle so during that time period you can't withdraw the money yet but a lot of brokerages allow you to reinvest it in other stocks understanding that you will not sell that other position before those funds settle kind of confusing guys but like let's say for example you sold a stock that you had a profit on on a monday and then you took those proceeds on monday and bought another stock right the funds from those from the stock that you sold on monday is not going to settle until thursday which would be three business days following so if you bought new shares of a different company and sold it before thursday this is something called a free ride and you can get in trouble with your brokerage because you technically made money using borrowed money something that uh the sec is not a fan of or finra i can't remember which regulatory agency but either way brokerages are on the lookout for this it's called a free ride they give it to you as a courtesy but if you abuse the privilege it is taken away from you um and you can also end up with a suspension for a period of time if you have multiple free rides so never ever ever swing trade with unsettled funds because you might get stuck holding a position simply because your funds are not settled and this is also important to understand here too a lot of brokerages allow you to use something called instant deposit now and essentially it's something similar when you move money from your bank account to your brokerage through the ach clearing house through the ach process um it does take two to three business days if not longer to get your funds in there so rather than having to wait for your money to arrive a lot of these newer brokerages will front you the money up to like a thousand dollars that way you can invest immediately and your funds come in later so that's another convenient feature of a lot of those newer apps um and i i will say this i'm not aware of the of schwab or the big brokerages offering this but a lot of the apps that offer the free stocks etc do have this instant deposit feature that way you don't have to wait for the money to hit your account before you're able to invest alrighty guys so we covered a lot of the boring stuff there fun settlement order types etc now i want to start discussing different assets that you're able to purchase through the stock market because a lot of people are under this misconception that the stock market is just a place to buy and sell stocks however there are different types of assets out there that trade on these major exchanges outside of the realms of of stocks and even within stocks there's many different categories of stocks so we're just going to get a bit more granular here and cover some more information so stocks in general i typically will break them down into three different categories you have blue chip stocks which are well established companies oftentimes dividend payers that's where majority of my money is then you have growth stocks which are newer companies that have more growth potential and then you also have a hybrid of the two which would be a blue chip growth stock or a dividend growth stock um and then you have more speculative and penny stocks now within each of these categories you know based on market cap or market value you have a different risk profile but if you were to break these down into three categories that's about how i'd separate these out and for beginners i would say you know and this is not financial advice but just based on my own experience blue chip stocks is a great place to start for beginners you're very unlikely to get burned there and maybe a little bit into growth maybe some blue chip growth but speculative penny stocks that is not beginner territory and not something i recommend you should understand what category a stock falls into before investing in it and that's going to be based on doing your own due diligence looking at the market cap etc etc but that's a lot of stuff that's going to come further on in this video so first of all let's talk about blue chip stocks blue chips are stocks of well-established financially stable and well-managed companies uh it's companies with decades if not centuries of records and operating history they've been through all kinds of different economic conditions there are larger companies that may not be growing as fast but they're less volatile and more consistent than newer startup and growth stocks most of them pay dividends to shareholders which is great because that gives you the opportunity to reinvest those dividends allowing you to earn compound interest so that's why i love blue chips they're also a great option for beginners to consider because you're very unlikely to get burned or you know to lose all of your money by purchasing a blue chip company and we'll go over some examples of them too just so you guys have some tangible examples growth stocks on the other hand are stocks of companies that are increasing in value rapidly earnings are expected to grow at a faster rate than the market or industry average there are more recently formed companies and they're not time tested like the blue chip peers they're typically significantly more volatile than blue chip stocks and in terms of that p e or price to earnings ratio which we said earlier is essentially how much money you're paying per exposure of one dollar of that company's earnings you typically see the p e ratio be much higher in a growth stock versus a blue chip stock because of the anticipated growth now there's another metric i like called the forward p e ratio that projects forward into the future based on earnings estimates and tells you what that pe is likely to come in at in the future if the company hits those revenue and earnings targets and then for the final category we have our penny stocks uh in my opinion there's no business of these being in your investing portfolio uh speculative investments are a form of gambling i'm not saying to avoid them entirely but put them in a separate portfolio based on the teachings here of that book right there the intelligent investor by benjamin graham so i have my main portfolio where i have my blue chip dividend payers then i have my play money portfolio which is a much smaller amount of money and that's where i do my speculations and that's where i play around i'm not saying you shouldn't play around with the market but any money that goes into your speculative account you should be willing to lose 100 of that money so you don't put your rent money in there you don't put your inheritance in there this is just play money treat it as if you were going to the casino and playing roulette that's pretty much the equivalent of speculating in the market it's high risk it's volatile and oftentimes it's heavily manipulated especially if you're trading stocks off the major exchanges and one of my thoughts right here guys as i said earlier while i do not discourage speculating i think this should be done in a separate trading account specifically designed for speculating or or earmarked for speculating again that's not my original idea that came from benjamin graham but it's something i follow myself that i highly recommend to you so now let's take a look at a couple of fun examples here of some wild moves in the stock uh stock market and some things that a lot of beginners got caught up in that probably burned them pretty good here nokia stock went on a reddit fueled rally earlier in january and it closed at a high of 655 per share on wednesday january 27th well one day later that stock closed at 469.
So people potentially lost about 28 percent in one day that is the danger of speculation again if you were buying into nokia stock a lot of people were doing it based on the hype or the rumor and they were buying it simply because they expected it to go higher in the future which should not be your main reason for purchasing a stock so this is what speculation can look like next example we have here oh we go to mutual funds okay so the next asset type i want to cover outside of stocks is another popular one and this is a mutual fund mutual funds involve active money management which essentially means rather than having you pick and choose what you're investing in you have somebody else that you pay to make those decisions on your behalf because of this active money management is significantly more expensive than passive most retail investors cannot afford professional management of their money uh hedge funds are the popular investment for you know millionaires and billionaires but you often have to have you know a multi-million dollar net worth just to utilize these services so the alternative here is the mutual fund this allows small investors to collectively pull their money and have it managed for them and this was the most common investment during the 80s and 90s and then in the 90s the etf was born and that was kind of a game changer because prior to that the main option that you had for getting the broad market exposure was through a mutual fund which meant you're paying this guy or this office full of men and women to manage your money um and you're basically saying hey i don't know what i'm doing i want you to do it for me but then in the 90s another product came out called the etf the exchange traded fund which basically said hey maybe we don't want to pay all these people over here to manage the money but we don't want to do it ourselves what if instead of actively managing it we just did it passively and instead we just lo you know owned the market in a very low fee manner that was the birth of the etf and now mutual funds are really not popular at all anymore not something i invest in not something i really discuss on my channel um and it's something that honestly in the next 20 30 years i wouldn't be surprised if it's something that's fairly uncommon uh in terms of what people are actually purchasing it reminds me of how a lot of people would purchase you know treasuries and savings bonds for kids you know and it's not really something you see so much anymore these days so basically mutual funds are for active money management they're not really popular anymore and personally i i don't recommend mutual funds because if you look at the statistics most of them are actually not outperforming the market when you consider the amount you're paying in fees so we've talked about this quite a bit already but a bit more detail here about the etf or exchange traded fund so mutual funds and etfs are very similar in that they allow you to own a basket of many different stocks however the key distinction between the two is that the mutual fund is actively managed which contributes to higher investment fees whereas the etf is passively managed meaning there's little to no human involvement making it significantly less expensive so many people decide to simply own a piece of the broad market rather than trying to pick and choose individual stocks and statistically speaking those who simply passively own the market tend to outperform those who pick stocks i'm not saying this to discourage you from you know doing it yourself you see me doing it every day being active with my investments i do it because i enjoy it and it's kind of a social aspect for me as well being an active stock trader however if you're just looking to passively build wealth etfs are going to be one of the best options that you have available to you today so the next thing on my list here is not technically a separate asset it's a separate account type but i included it here anyway just to discuss and that is the ira or individual retirement account so a lot of people are familiar with the 401k which is the employer sponsored retirement savings plan but outside of the 401k you can also open something called an ira and have additional money that you're setting aside be it tax deferred or or um you pay taxes or potentially no taxes based on the type of account so there are benefits to iras especially if you're young and you have many years ahead of you to allow that money to grow if you're investing for the long term especially for retirement you should definitely consider maximizing contributions to at the very least the roth ira which for most people is the best retirement account option you have available to you outside of your 401k from your employer also most people should do both it's not really like one or the other most people should you know utilize the 401k especially if there's some type of employer match being offered and then you should also consider when possible contributing if not maxing out contributions to that roth ira retirement account anyone with earned income can contribute to an ira some people open them up for their children and there's kind of interesting loopholes with the tax system associated with the ira so there's two main types of iras for retail investors that is the traditional ira and the roth ira so first of all let's discuss the traditional ira a traditional ira has a yearly tax deductible contribution limit that changes over time basically over time these limits are going up based on inflation so because buying power is less people are allowed to stash away more for retirement so anyway in 2021 the limit is six thousand dollars or seven thousand if you are 50 and up keep in mind that money is growing in an ira tax deferred which means taxes are paid when you draw the money out at retirement age which for most people is 59 and a half so every retirement account out there except for the roth ira has something called an rmd or required minimum distribution which unfortunately means that at 59 and a half you have to start drawing from that account whereas the roth ira you can keep contributing and there's no required minimum distribution meaning that let's say you work till 70 you know you're still able to contribute to that roth ira whereas with the traditional ira even if you are still working once you hit that golden age of 59 and a half you're required to start taking distributions from the account so another clear distinction and characteristic you should be aware of between the two so now briefly discussing the roth ira with the roth ira you do not get any type of tax deduction um you're using your post tax money however the benefit here is that your money is then going to grow tax free assuming that you follow the guidelines and you start drawing past the age of 59 and a half again you don't have to start drawing at that point but if you pull money out before then you may be subject to penalties and taxes which can be pretty hefty so money invested in a roth ira has already been taxed so it grows tax free and once you reach the age of 59 and a half you can withdraw the money tax free but you don't have to you can also keep contributing if you want to early withdrawal penalties apply and iras typically involve mutual funds but there's a lot of good options these days for self-directed iras where you can actually pick and choose the investments so it doesn't have to be a boring mutual fund investment if you wanted to you could put your ira in tesla or amazon stock if you chose to with that self-directed ira that being said guys when you put money into a retirement account you should expect to leave it there until retirement age so don't direct money into a roth ira or a traditional ira or a 401k if you don't plan on leaving it there for a long time there are a few exceptions for example you can use some retirement money towards the purchase of your first home or certain things like that and also one benefit to the roth ira is you can withdraw contributions at any time you just can't touch the earnings so if you put six grand in a roth ira and then two years later it was worth seven thousand you can pull out your six thousand dollar contribution tax free penalty free but if you touch that one thousand dollars of earnings now you have to pay taxes and penalties on top of that so just be clear about that and make sure before you put money into a retirement account you're able to commit to that term of leaving that money in there until retirement age so we talked about this a little bit but we'll briefly cover here 401k plans money is set aside from each paycheck and contributed towards the retirement fund unfortunately with 401ks you're typically locked in with whoever the company you work for chooses some 401k plans are better than others unfortunately so hopefully you get a good one if it's like vanguard or fidelity or one of those big names but there's also a lot of good resources out there that help you understand whether or not you have a good or bad retirement plan so it's also good to do a quick google search and just see you know what people have to say about the fees and the investment choices with your 401k provider which your employer chooses some employers offer a match up to a certain percentage you should always take advantage of that it's free money if they're offering that a 401k is not self-directed so be selective about what mutual fund or etf your money is allocated into unfortunately you're stuck with whatever options that provider has and sometimes they're just really lousy depending on the provider contribution limits apply to a 401k plan of 19 500 per year so now that we're past retirement accounts which is not technically a different asset but i lumped it in here anyway now we'll talk about other assets you can trade through the stock market exchanges one of the most popular being a reit or real estate investment trust this is a pool of real estate investments essentially you generate revenue through leasing renting and selling those properties and they often generate hefty dividends as um 90 of the total net income or more is required to be passed along to the shareholders in order to classify this asset as a reit i personally don't invest in reits because i prefer to have direct real estate exposure through my actual properties that i own so i have a house hack in new york and i have my primary residence now in florida so i have you know at least a quarter million dollars of equity in real estate between those two properties and over a million in terms of the market value i don't own the whole properties but over time you know i do want to get those mortgages paid down in the next couple of years so i like that type of real estate exposure so with my brokerage account i stick to stocks i don't touch bonds and i also have a little bit of money in crowdfunded real estate so personally i don't invest in wreaths but if you don't currently have any real estate exposure this may be something that you consider as part of your portfolio alrighty guys so the only other asset really to speak of is bonds which we already talked about you can also trade mlps master limited partnerships on stock exchanges i personally don't own any bonds i don't trade them and i also have never owned or traded mlps so i'm just simply not going to cover them but they are available if you want to do more research about that but most people don't invest in those types of assets now we're going to talk more about different investing strategies to give you an idea of the different ways that people are trying to capitalize on this thing known as the stock market and of course we're going to start off with the day traders so day traders trade in and out of stock during a trading day and end each day in cash with no open positions day traders are using sophisticated high frequency trading platforms to capitalize or to take advantage of very fast very short trends in the market they're solely trading based on technical stock analysis which essentially means looking at the charts be it a line chart or a candlestick chart which we'll talk more about later day traders do not study the fundamentals of a company they don't care about it because it's not relevant to the current price swings during that day it's all about the emotion day traders solely care about the emotion of a stock the the uh indications of fear and greed showing up in the price movement of that stock that is what they're looking to capitalize on they don't read earnings reports they don't do any of that they look at charts they look for certain patterns and they trade the patterns they're familiar with the idea here for day traders who are successful is to take many small profits each day that add up to a large profit over time for example some day traders aim to have a one percent profit every day because that would lead up to a lot or that would add up to a lot over a long period of time the number one problem with day trading and trading in general is that all human beings for the most part are susceptible to this emotion known as greed which is going to cause you to oftentimes stay in a position longer not sell and the most common reason that people are not successful with day trading is they frequently will get greedy and ride a winner into a loser so just an important thing to understand here day trading is not for most people the majority are not successful i've never tried it i've tried swing trading which we're going to cover shortly but that's what day trading is just so you have a general idea so after day trading which is the shortest possible time horizon where you end every day in cash the next from that in terms of duration is swing trading which is where my stock market journey started um back in 2015 and 2016.
This is how i started i i wanted to be a trader i wanted to make 20 30 returns per year and i didn't it didn't work out for me but i ended up becoming a long-term investor and so it worked out in the long run but i feel like again a lot of people start off in the stock market looking to generate crazy returns and they want to find penny stocks and do all the stuff but as they mature and learn more about the markets and how these things function they realize okay no more of a long-term strategy is what works for most people alleviates stress and and that's kind of the intended use case for the stock market so swing trading or short term trading is typically a two to five day hold on a position the big difference between swing versus day trading is that swing traders hold positions overnight whereas a two-dra true day trader ends every day in cash the goal here is to identify a trend and capture the gains by following the trend in the short term swing traders are following the overall prevailing trend of the market and swing traders rely mostly on technical stock analysis to identify trends within a price movement and they're typically looking at something called a candlestick chart so after that after swing trading and after day trading there's like intermediate term uh like short to medium term trading i kind of you know made this up myself here i don't even know if there is an intermediate term but there is also a type of investing where you're not day trading and you're not holding it for two or five years two or five days but you're also not holding on to it for two years and i'm calling this intermediate term trading this is typically a term of six to 12 months an intermediate term investor is someone who invests in a stock with the intentions of selling it maybe in the next year now one of the most important things to consider when buying and selling stocks is the tax implications associated with that move and so me personally being in that highest bracket with federal income tax um i always aim to have those long-term capital gains and qualified dividends just to avoid paying those taxes i pay as little as possible as a result so we're going to talk more about taxes later but for now understand that an intermediate term trader is typically like six to 12 months or around one year and and there's a big benefit to owning a stock for one year or longer associated with the taxes um that you're going to pay with that investment that we'll discuss later on next up after that we have the long-term investors a long-term investment is an investment made with the intention of holding it for like one year to maybe five years you know a couple year investments long-term investors have a significant tax advantage over short-term investors and traders which we are going to discuss later long-term investors are not concerned about market corrections seasonality or other economic factors for the most part historically long-term investing has been the winning strategy for most investors especially those who do it passively that is individuals who get into etfs and they buy things consistently over time regularly contribute to the market and they leave their money in there for many decades to grow that's basically the intended use case of the stock market and ironically what they have found looking at successful trading accounts is that some of the most successful accounts out there are ones where the recipient or the beneficiary of the account had passed away or forgotten that they even had the account so activity is typically the enemy and uh something that's going to eliminate some of your gains typically the more active you are the less money you're making you're just generating a frenzy of activity that's kind of spinning your tires in the mud so historically long-term investing has been you know the winning strategy for most people but then we have a different style here which is that warren buffett type long term which is super long-term investing that's like the warren buffett strategy where some of the stocks in his portfolio he's literally owned them for like 40 50 plus years so when warren buffett buys into stocks he's thinking out many decades ahead in most cases some of his investments are just super long term um i'm not sure there's certainly some companies i'm going to hold for 10 20 years like apple for example or something like intel big companies like that i'm sure there's going to be some companies i own for 10 20 years but for the most part i would classify myself as like an intermediate term to a long-term investor where the majority of my money is in these blue chip dividend paying stocks looking to capitalize on some upside with the stock but mostly dividends being reinvested however i also will make occasional changes to the portfolio here and there based on you know shorter term moves be it sector rotation which we'll discuss later or something like that alrighty guys so now that we've covered the different terms that people invest for be it a short term versus a super long term investor now we're going to talk more specifics about some of the different strategies that different investors utilize starting off with value investing which is pretty much the strategy of warren buffett slash benjamin graham which is looking to purchase companies trading below their true intrinsic value so people like warren buffett you know this worked a lot better for them way back in the 70s and 80s when there was more value to be had in the market now it's just more efficient and it's hard to find hidden value but still a strategy that is worth mentioning here essentially a value investor picks a stock based on the value of the underlying company and the assets they understand the difference between the price and the value of the stock so they're looking to purchase a stock whereas the actual value in terms of the assets is higher than the actual price per share so they're just looking for value that other people are not seeing a value investor compares the current price of ownership to the value of ownership in the actual company so it's essentially looking for hidden gems in the market where other investors have you know not found this opportunity easier said than done almost impossible to do this in 2021 but still a strategy worth discussing so that is value investing next up we have growth investing which is much more popular in this day and age the main goal of growth investing is to grow your money it's focused around assets that tend to appreciate in value so people tend to invest in stocks for capital appreciation which is where you're looking to buy low and sell for a higher price down the road a straight up growth investor is only looking for growth of the share price they don't buy dividend stocks they just want to buy low and sell high young people are at an advantage when it comes to growth investing because they have a lot of time ahead of them and they can afford to be more patient growth investors typically focus on the five year outlook of a given company so to compare growth versus income and um just so you guys know you can do a blend of both here i actually do um what's called dividend growth investing but anyway most people are typically either on the growth side of the fence or the income side of the fence whereas although some people are in the middle but growth investors are looking for earnings to be reinvested in the company resulting in appreciation of the stock price so growth investors want companies to retain profits themselves reinvest that money into other business operations which should result in more earnings and a higher share price whereas income investors are looking for regular cash payments from their investments rather than the company themselves reinvesting earnings themselves so that's the typical school of thought there and then you know dividend growth investors those people are looking for both they want a little bit of growth potential and a little bit of income on the side and that's basically the school of thought that i fall into um where most of the stocks in my dividend portfolio are dividend payers but they still have some growth potential for example uh microsoft apple um intel are a couple of the names i also have logitech and texas instruments these are all companies that pay dividends but still have some level of growth potential now when it comes to growth investing in my opinion the number one thing to look for is a strong company in a growing industry i would not recommend investing in the weakest links out there because if you think of an industry as a chain you know you don't want to invest in the weakest link of that chain in my opinion you'd want to invest in one of the stronger leading companies in that chain to determine if an industry is growing you compare it to a benchmark and what people utilize for this is typically the s p 500 this is simply the overall performance of the 500 largest publicly traded companies in the united states and it gives you a benchmark of how the overall market is performing so if you hear people referring to the market or the market performance nine times out of ten what they're talking about is the s p 500 so one of the first things you tend to do as a growth investor is you look for a industry that's experiencing above average growth outpacing the s p 500 from that point you then look for the leaders of that industry and then maybe at that point you take a look at some of those p e ratios or different indicators to compare these companies side by side before ultimately making an investment decision that's pretty much the overall process that i go through for example earlier this year i got bullish on financials because they were sold off massively so i said financials are way in the red i think this is going to go up in the short term so i did some research and i decided on bank of america stock and i experienced like a 60 70 return in that stock in like six months time not going to happen every time that was really good timing on my part and a lot of luck but there was some strategy involved but that's basically what i do i kind of start with the industry and then i look at the companies and i look for these stronger links of that chain but making sure i'm not buying a company that's you know the most overvalued in that given uh area of the you know business that sec so here we're looking at one of my favorite tools out there it's completely free it's called the fidelity sectors and industries tool highly recommend it guys check out that website yourself and bookmark it because this is typically where i start my search if i'm looking to add a new stock to my overall portfolio i look for an industry that's underperforming and then i look for a strong leader in that industry so for example over the last year airlines have massively underperformed the s p 500 so as we can see here the blue chart on top the light blue is the s p 500 the dark blue is the airlines now i actually got bullish on airlines back in march and i did exceptionally well with them i traded an etf called jets which basically owns a little piece of all the major airlines so i got bullish on airlines and i actually did well here i pretty much sold around this run up here i sold them that initial run up here of jets but just for an example here this is what it looks like when an industry or sector is underperforming the s p 500.
Here it was following it and then it underperformed it and even now i think there's still opportunity with airlines if you you know are comfortable with the risks associated with this industry however even at this video right now as of making this video we're still seeing that airlines are still underperforming that s p 500 but if we go to a longer view here which is actually a 10-year chart we can see surprisingly that from 2014 to around 2020 airlines were actually outperforming or doing better than the s p 500 so in my opinion guys and again this is not financial advice but my opinion is that once all of the tailwinds of the pandemic are behind us airlines should go back to meeting if not outperforming the s p 500 because that was the trend prior so this is just one of my favorite tools for looking at the overall snapshot of how is the whole market doing compared to individual areas of the economy so let's say for example you decide that you want to invest in a certain industry you maybe use that fidelity sector as an industries tool and you saw that a couple of sectors were like red hot meaning they're way up and totally outperforming the s p 500 i tend to avoid those if possible and i look for potentially whatever anybody else is not focusing on so when everyone was focusing on tech i decided to focus on financials now everyone's focused on financials and i actually got back into tech so i tend to just go against the prevailing trend and i follow pretty much something called sector rotation so you're gonna find that certain sectors or areas of the economy heat up for a while and then they sell off but that money sells off and goes somewhere else uh because this is just you know billionaires shuffling money around it comes out of one and it goes somewhere else so i'm always trying to think about okay if money leaves tech where is it gonna go instead that's why i you know got that position in bank of america and that ended up paying out for me and it was a positive investment for me so anyways let's say you found an industry and now you're wondering what companies are there out there well to find companies within a certain industry one of the best approaches is to find a major index tracking this industry so for example there's the new york stock exchange arca airline index or jets is probably the more popular one now i don't even know if jets actually existed when i originally made this uh presentation years ago so we updated it to make it current but it's kind of interesting i think the jets etf has actually come into existence between this timeline here but anyway what you're looking for is the components of the index what individual companies are part of this index and then you're going to look at those companies do some research and from there look for you know a strong company in a growing industry or it's an industry that was doing well prior and now it's just not doing well like airlines were doing well for like six seven years and then they weren't and so they should do well again assuming you know you know we have a safe reopening and everything goes well so that that's what i tend to look for now beyond just the fundamentals looking at you know the p e ratio or the forward p e or things like that there's a lot more to consider before making any investment for example does the company have a strong and recognizable brand does the company have a high barrier to entry or could someone else easily disrupt them does the company have intellectual property or patents that protect them i actually just recorded like a one plus hour video big shocker i bet because i never record long videos but anyway i just did this long video called how i pick my stocks i'm gonna put a card up in the corner for you guys it's another one you might want to revisit what we're talking about right here guys this goes through step by step the criteria i look for when i actually pick a stock to invest in right now we're doing a high level overview of the stock market as a whole but if you want to dive more specifically into given topics um i have plenty of video resources for that so i've got two cards there already the one for my dividend investing all about dividend investing if that's the strategy you want to go with and then i also have how to pick stocks if you're curious the actual criteria i'll give you some basics in this video but we certainly go into a lot more detail over there now if you're looking to generate income from your stock investments you'll need to look at stocks that pay dividends because unfortunately if you own a growth stock or a stock where you're looking to make money by buying low and selling high you can't make any money owning the stock unless you sell it you have to sell it for more than you paid and that's how you make money one of my favorite parts about dividend investing is that these stocks pay you while you own them you don't have to sell any shares to make money all you do is own those shares and as long as you hold on to them you will get your dividends assuming that company continues paying them so when looking for dividends you will want to look at the dividend yield of the company which is essentially the amount being paid out in dividends each year expressed as a percentage one of the biggest mistakes out there for beginners is chasing a high dividend yield it's often a trap dividends are never guaranteed they can be changed cut restructured at any point in time like i said check out that dividend investing video for more information on this we literally spend about one hour just talking about dividend investing now one important thing to understand if you decide to be an income investor is called a drip or dividend reinvestment plan as an income investor you're going to need to decide what you're going to do with your dividends pretty much you have two choices you can take your money and run and maybe you go buy a sandwich or something but the problem is you know then your money's just kind of thrown away and it's probably not moving into a different asset it's moving into a liability or just a general expense the other option is to reinvest that dividend either back into the issuing stock or across your entire portfolio that is what i follow as a strategy all of the dividends earned are reinvested across my entire portfolio and with the brokerage i use it actually rebalances that portfolio in the process so as those um allocations skew based on varying performance in the stock market the dividends that are earned are actually helping to balance me back out and return me closely as possible to the target allocations uh this allows you to earn compound interest or dividends on dividends you earn a dividend it goes back into the stock and then that dividend earns dividends and then that dividend earns dividends so you can see how this compounds over time and essentially a drip is a feature that automatically allows you to reinvest those dividends either across your portfolio or back into the issuing stock so something you may want to consider when comparing features and benefits of different brokerages now another important thing to consider when investing in dividend stocks is looking at the dividend history you want to be able to answer these questions number one how long has the company been paying dividends i typically like to invest in dividend aristocrats which are companies that have been not only paying but also growing the dividend every year consecutively for 25 years or more there's only about 60 companies on this list they're highly sought after and a lot of them are in my portfolio because these are the types of companies that i personally like to invest in another question what is the dividend growth streak how many years have they been growing dividends has the dividend ever been interrupted or suspended also does the company have a durable competitive advantage these are all questions i like to ask myself and have answers to before adding a position to my dividend portfolio now the next strategy i want to discuss here is one of the most brilliant investment strategies out there it takes all of the guesswork out of the equation it's free and it's easy but not a lot of people like to follow it and it's dollar cost averaging it's virtually impossible to successfully time the market and even if you do it once the odds of doing it over and over again it's just highly unlikely if you're not interested in studying the technical charts and determining optimal entry points through technical stock analysis or just simply maybe buying on days that are more red or when there's blood in the streets this investing strategy may be for you dca or dollar cost averaging is the technique of buying a fixed dollar amount of a security on a regular schedule regardless of the share price historically this has proven to be a great strategy as over time you just simply pay the market average so at times when the share price is up high you're buying less shares but if it's down low you're buying more so over time you're paying the average of the market dollar cost averaging as long as you're buying good quality assets you really can't go wrong here i actually right now have a stock i'm doing this myself with i'm actually putting like uh 250 dollars a day into one of these stocks that i'm excited about trying to build up a long-term position um i'll probably do a video on that separately because i want to specifically talk about that stock later on but dollar cost averaging is a strategy that i use myself and it's certainly helped me with my investing career alrighty guys so now we're going to talk briefly here about technical stock analysis or studying the charts of a stock this is where my stock market career or you know stock market life started was back in 2015 2016 when i was learning about swing trading thinking i was going to be you know this big trader obviously it didn't pan out that way i eventually shifted into a more long-term strategy but i still do utilize technical stock analysis when looking for optimal entry points for stocks so analysis of a stock using charts that displays price and volume patterns is the definition of technical analysis the goal here is to identify entry and exit points through predictive price movements and trends so day traders and short-term traders rely solely in most cases on technical stock analysis when making decisions about buying and selling stocks longer-term traders and investors may find this information to be useful as well as it can help you to determine optimal entry points and we're going to cover some really basic stuff just with price charts that you should be familiar with even if you don't plan on ever looking at a candlestick chart in your life so now i want to talk about a few different charts you should be familiar with in the stock market the most common one is a line chart this is going to show the closing price of a security over a set period of time line charts are great for comparing a stock to another stock or an index and essentially benchmarking it to a competitor or the industry as a whole or the s p 500 then we have bar charts this is a single vertical bar that shows the opening and closing prices which can be useful to kind of show you like how the stock traded that given day up or down also you'll have bar charts at the bottom that typically show you trading volume which we talked about earlier that's how many people are exchanging that stock on a given day candlestick charts are the basis of technical stock analysis and it essentially incorporates line charts and a bar chart whereas a body and shadow are added this may sound crazy guys but we're going to go over an example right now and even if you don't understand this don't worry about this guys you don't need to understand candlestick charts in order to invest but i'm going to give you a quick understanding right here a white or green body so this one right here or this one right here represents a closing price higher than the opening price so that means that in this case here the stock opened here and then it closed up here and for the green chart it opened down here and it closed up here now a black body on the other hand represents a closing price lower than the opening price but higher than the closing price of the previous day so for example on this black chart on the left it means it opened up here and closed down here and the same thing with the red chart it means it opened up high here and closed all the way down here so that pretty much shows you based on the color of the body whether it's white or black or red or green depending on the software you're using and there's free sites for this i'll show you one that shows you if the stock closed higher or lower than the open and the actual uh shadow shows you how high or low the range was for where it traded so sounds confusing but now let's just jump right into an example here okay here alrighty guys so here we are looking at a candlestick chart for apple stock i got this from stockcharts.com it's completely free and i would definitely recommend taking a peek at it if this is interesting to you um there's a lot going on here guys and there is another type of body here the solid black one that's a little bit outside of the scope of this beginner's video um but for the most part we're focusing on the red bodies and the open bodies for indicators of the stock moving up or moving down now there's all kinds of different names for the different patterns that show up here like the um ascending triangle descending triangle the doji different things like that i don't remember any of them anymore because i don't really utilize technical analysis that much but i do pay attention on the overall trend of a stock if i'm adding a sizeable amount to my portfolio also on this chart here you can also see trading volume at the bottom and black bars are bullish volume and red bars are bearish volume and you can kind of see where like let's say for example you're watching this stock for a while right and you see that it just had a really red day here where it sold off massively you know this probably would have been a good area to pick up some shares and obviously a couple of months later the stock continued to trend upward so that is why i like using a little bit of technical analysis and that's kind of the general picture it can paint for you also on this day here when the stock actually gapped much higher you see that it was on very strong bullish trading volume which is a good indicator of a strong strong momentum behind a stock so candlestick chart patterns can be used to predict price movements it's not a hundred percent accurate but especially if you understand the personality of a given stock and you've seen that pattern play out before that's when it's more and more useful both bearish and bullish chart patterns exist we're not going to get into any chart patterns here in this video candlestick chart patterns are an entire field of study on their own and maybe someday i'll do a whole video just talking about technical stock analysis a lot of people have written entire books about candlestick chart patterns but the main thing you want to know is understanding support and resistance areas which is what we're covering now so support and resistance areas are a result of the market supply and the market demand for a particular stock and as we said earlier supply and demand fear and greed it's all the same thing this scenario plays out based on the level of fear and the level of greed people have towards a certain stock so essentially what happens is you have this resistance area which is where this first arrow is pointing and this is like the ceiling for a stock so it tends to trade to that ceiling and then towards that support and it trades in that range until there is something to push it upward or downward so in this case here it was bouncing back and forth between support and resistance areas based on people being fearful or greedy about the stock and this back and forth tug of war however then in this particular instance it broke out above the previous resistance and made a new high what's cool about that is the old resistance often becomes the new support unless that support is broken and that's the basics of support and resistance areas it'll make more sense when we look at some examples of this playing out with actual stocks so anyways guys that's the gist there of technical stock analysis if you understand support and resistance areas that's 90 of what you need to understand essentially um what you tend to have happen is that uh stocks will stay in a period of what's called consolidation which is where you're they're just trading within that tight price window of support and resistance and then eventually you're going to have a breakout above or it's going to collapse below that price and fall to a lower support that's why it's so important to understand the prevailing trend behind a stock because if the trend is upward for the last five years you know what happened in the past is likely to continue going forward unless there's some major change so that's why these days anytime i'm buying into a stock i want to make sure i have solid momentum behind it and i'm going with the grain of the market i'm not going against the grain and buying into a stock that has a downward trend over the last couple of years so if technical stock analysis is the personality of the stock or the emotion fundamental stock analysis tells you about the overall health of a company fundamental stock analysis is the study of the financial health and fitness of a company the main factors that you analyze looking at the fundamentals of a stock is the revenue as well as the earnings and the debt revenue is simply the total amount of money that that company has come in and then the earnings is what they keep after they pay their employees and at different expenses and then you have the debt which is how much money that company owes to other people the goal of fundamental analysis is to determine the intrinsic value of a stock but it's also to understand if the company's in good financial health adequate or poor financial health now there's also a whole other area of fundamental analysis which studies the management team of a company and this is something that i do consider when investing in stocks because at the end of the day a ship is of no use without a good captain so one factor you need to consider when analyzing a company is the management team of that company and whether or not that company is being run well so the best place to start out with this is called the board of directors this is a group of individuals elected to represent the shareholders and create management policies as well as decide on major company decisions now remember earlier we talked about how certain companies offer voting shares if you have voting rights as a shareholder the shareholders with voting rights collectively elect these members so if you own more shares you have more of a say if you own less shares you have less of a say so that's another reason why voting rights are important and i know a lot of people don't make a priority about this or even mention it but i always like to have a say behind decisions especially if my money's behind it and i know a lot of people invest in stocks and they don't ever vote and i'll be honest with you i rarely have ever voted in any company decisions but i just like the idea of knowing that i could if i chose to and real quick guys i just wanted to show you this hierarchy here of a corporation okay at the very top you have the shareholders their needs and priorities are typically met first because if the shareholders are happy the share price is going up the you know the whole you know ceo of the company the management team is happy and it all trickles down so at the very top you have the shareholders below that level you have board of directors which is elected usually by those shareholders through some form of vote and then below that you have the president and then that breaks off into different categories like a treasurer or a secretary then you have vice president roles management middle management and then you have employees just a basic drawing really the only thing i want you to understand is the top two here how the shareholders are really at the top and then the board of directors is essentially helping these shareholders have a voice in the company now in terms of doing fundamental research one of the best places to start is the investor relations section of a publicly traded company's website so for example apple has apple investor relations so if you're researching a company right now or if you're already owned shares of a company and you want to learn more about the company you own you should type in the name of the company in google followed by investor relations and this is going to give you earnings reports annual reports uh any sec filings and different important documents like that so that would be your first piece of homework after this video is pick one of your favorite stocks or a stock you're considering put it into google blank investor relations and then skim through that website and look at what information is available to you on this website geared towards investors in the company so now what i want to cover here is sort of a warren buffett approach to fundamental analysis of a company now this is not his exact strategy nobody knows that for sure but a lot of people have studied the decisions that buffett has made over the many decades he's been investing and these would be common questions that warren buffett would ask before investing in a company number one above all else is the management truthful and straightforward with the shareholders he's a big fan of honest management and he knows that if the board of directors and management is not honest those problems are going to trickle down number two is this a business i can understand and study and if you're brand new to the stock market you may choose to include some if not all of these questions on your criteria as well simply put especially as a beginner you should not invest in things that you don't understand yourself clearly number three is the operating history of this company consistent making sure this is not some flash in the pan success number four does the company have a long-term competitive advantage number five is management treating shareholders fairly for example are they paying out dividends are they reinvesting earnings into things that are growing the value of the business or are they being greedy and retaining profits and not necessarily you know investing money in the right places for shareholders and then lastly is this company a leader or is this company a follower very important questions that you may include in your own criteria when you begin researching the fundamentals of companies so another piece in the fundamentals category is something called goodwill and as much as i love that store uh it's not what i'm talking about i do love goodwill though but what we're talking about here is something different this represents the premium paid for a company for those intangible assets outside of the tangible ones so tangible assets are things you could put your hand on or things you can identify as real whereas the intangible assets are things that still have value but they're not physical things that you can transact or or you know look at the best way to explain goodwill is in terms of an acquisition if one company acquired another the price paid above the book value would represent the goodwill of a company and goodwill is solely based on the subjective value so it's very much based on opinion because it's not a tangible thing for example coca-cola would have a lot of goodwill if a company was looking to acquire them so a few examples of uh items or intangible assets falling under goodwill could be the value of a brand of a company so coca-cola for example has a very strong recognizable and valuable brand and another thing could be uh customer base not necessarily a tangible asset but something that still has value nonetheless anything under that category falls into the goodwill of a company so the next ratio i want to talk about here is the price to earnings to growth ratio or the peg ratio essentially what this does here is it takes that p e ratio and compares it to the anticipated five year growth of that company essentially this helps an investor determine the level of speculation or risk involved in an investment so essentially the way you calculate this is you take that current p e ratio which is essentially the earnings multiple or how much you're paying to expose yourself to just one dollar of company earnings and then you divide that by the projected earnings per share growth over the next five years and this is going to give you the price to earnings to growth ratio and it allows you to kind of normalize that data based on the anticipated growth of that company so e g is not necessarily again something where it's an end-all be-all but it's another useful tool in the toolbox so just for some tangible numbers here a peg of one means the p e ratio is justified based on the anticipated growth of that company but keep in mind anticipated growth doesn't always translate to reality it's based on projections a peg below one means the stock is below the fair value based on the anticipated growth meanwhile a peg above one means the stock is above the fair value in terms of the anticipated growth potential so sometimes you might come across a stock with a really high p e ratio but you might find the peg is a lot lower based on the anticipated growth of earnings over the next five years so when i'm looking at stocks i typically always look at that p e ratio and sometimes i'll delve into that p e g ratio too just to paint a better picture for myself so here's a real simple example of that p e and p e g ratio let's say i have an ice cream stand that nets a profit of ten thousand dollars per year and i decide i want to sell this business for one million dollars most people would say that's ridiculous you're never going to get that much money for that business based on that figure it would take 100 years to recoup your investment at a 10 000 net profit per year so the ice cream stand currently has an earnings multiple or p e ratio of 100.
So if you invested in this ice cream stand you're paying a hundred dollars today for one dollar of annual earnings potential of that business most people would never spend that much on an ice cream stand that's ridiculous however let's say this is a booming area and i expect to net 25 000 profit in the next 12 months that would mean that the forward earnings multiple or the forward pe would only be a 40 based on that earnings growth expected so that's how larger earnings tomorrow expected could mean that the pe is very high today but as long as that company continues doing well hopefully it all becomes justified based on those earnings coming up and everything normalizing so the next thing i want to talk about here is company assets examining a company's balance sheet is an important piece of fundamental analysis and to be honest with you guys this is pretty much the only key financial document that i'm looking at these days when doing any type of fundamental research on a company it essentially lists out different assets and liabilities and gives you a general idea of the overall financial health of a company it's similar to our own personal finances if somebody has a lot of debt with low income it's not looking very good whereas if somebody has minimal debt and high income and a lot of assets they're in better shape financially the same exact thing plays out with companies some of them are in excellent financial health and some of them are in total distress so one of the first things i want to talk about is assets versus liabilities assets are things that have value liabilities are things that take money out of your pocket in the in the words of robert kiyosaki there there are things that cost you money or uh you know they're a debt of some kind then we have current versus non-current um assets a current asset is something that is either cash right now or assets that are expected to be converted to cash within the next 12 months so current assets shows you how much cash this company should be able to get at in the next 12 months to pay for debts and other related expenses non-current assets are long-term assets that a company expects to hold on to for longer than one year so they're still having they still have value but they're not going to be converted into cash in the next 12 months so just to break this into two categories here of current versus non-current assets a company may have current assets could be cash foreign currency highly liquid investments which oddly enough is a lot of companies are putting bitcoin on the balance sheet that's another one accounts receivable and inventory these are all things expected to be converted to cash in the next 12 months or less non-current assets still have value but they're not going to be converted to cash for example property any type of plants equipment the good will of a company which we identified earlier illiquid investments acquisitions and any of those intangible assets which would mostly fall into that category of goodwill they still have value they still belong on the balance sheet but these assets aren't readily convertible into cash and they're not expected to be in the next 12 months now let's talk about liabilities liabilities are things that take money out of your pocket or their debts or money that is owed to a company basically like assets there are two types there's both current and non-current liabilities current liabilities are debts due to creditors within the next year and then non-current liabilities aka long-term debt is just debts that are going to come due in a term of greater than one year so what i like to do is look at you know what does the company have in current assets compared to current liabilities that tells me what is going to be due in the next 12 months and what's going to be cash or converted into cash in that same period and will this be enough to cover any debts that have to be paid in that time period so just to go over some examples here of current versus non-current or long-term debts current debts or current liabilities that's short-term debt accounts payable taxes payable interest payable declared dividends and any maturing long-term debt that comes due non-current liabilities are any like long-term debt that a company may have typically reloaded related to bonds that are issued pension liabilities deferred revenues deferred taxes and deferred liabilities there's a lot of complicated accounting stuff that goes on with publicly traded companies i don't understand the majority of it but there's a lot of things that companies do to you know defer earnings or defer taxes and different things like that all of this is spelled out on the balance sheet so since we covered a lot here in this section i just want to cover a few key findings and this is kind of the questions i ask myself when studying the fundamentals of a company number one our total assets growing each year it's kind of like seeing your individual net worth going up over time you want to see the net worth or total assets of a company going up year after year on top of that you want to pay attention to liabilities are they also growing each year and which one is growing faster ideally you want to see assets growing faster than liabilities next is inventory growing or shrinking another good thing to keep an eye on does the company have enough cash to cover current liabilities you want to make sure that the cash or assets readily convertible into cash is enough to cover any debts coming due in the next 12 months it also helps you to understand what types of assets does the company own is it mostly current or non-current assets lastly it's very important to understand is most of the debt short-term or long-term typically i would rather see a company with less long-term debt and more short-term debt that's getting paid off long-term debt is a very negative quality in my book when looking at a long-term investment next we're going to cover something called stockholders equity stockholders equity is essentially the net worth or what is left over when all liabilities are covered by the assets stockholders equity should always be growing and you want to look for stockholders equity over the last five to ten years and if this is a growth stock you're going to want to see consistent hopefully double-digit growth of stockholders equity over a multiple year time span so beyond the balance sheet there's also another document called the income statement this is going to be reporting the revenues and expenses of a business as well as what areas they are coming from essentially the income statement gives you a bird's eye snapshot of everything going on with this formula which is net income equals revenue minus expenses it itemizes all of that gives you an idea of the profitability of a company and just shows you the revenue coming in the expenses and how that's translating over to profits alrighty guys so we are on to day number three here we're going to go ahead and wrap this video up today so we're back to talking about some of those key findings that i look for on the income statement now as i mentioned earlier the main document that i look at these days if i'm doing any type of fundamental analysis of a company is going to be that balance sheet however if you do want to go a bit deeper here this is kind of above and beyond the scope of a beginner video but if you're looking at the income statement these are a couple of the questions that i like to ask myself when analyzing a company number one is the company increasing sales and increasing revenue because sometimes you'll see sales increasing and then that may not be translating to profits etc so you just want to get an idea of all are all of those numbers heading in the right direction number two is gross profit keeping up with total revenue because sometimes you'll find a company is growing revenue but sacrificing profitability in the meantime and their profitability is slipping number three are we seeing double-digit revenue growth if this is a growth stock i would always like to see that double-digit growth there over a couple of years looking at year-over-year revenue growth next up is cost of revenue growth reasonable you don't want to see that accelerating faster than you know profitability otherwise that means that they may be less profitable as they're bringing in more sales and revenue number six is an increase in revenue resulting in an increase in operating income number seven is the company maintaining profitability so it's good to see that over many many years this company has continued to be profitable and then number eight are any of the expense items increasing at an abnormal rate based on prior years or quarters so i just look at the expense items there and i look for anything jumping out or accelerating or growing at a much faster rate than anything else so for the most part looking at the income statement i am looking for any anomalies or things that might look like a potential red flag so the last key financial document to cover here we talked about the balance sheet the income statement the final one here is called the cash flow statement and again guys this is pretty intermediate to advanced stuff here so if you're totally overwhelmed about these uh financial documents really the only one i recommend learning if you absolutely had to pick one would of course be the balance sheet but if you find this stuff to be interesting you can always learn a lot by studying these documents of different companies so the cash flow statement is a quarterly document that provides an update on these three financial statements uh it helps you by understanding these understanding these three documents allows investors to interpret the quarterly earnings report so in that report every quarter they're going to update on those three core financial documents so more on the cash flow statement and what this is this cash flow statement shows how changes in the balance sheet have affected cash and cash equivalents essentially cash enters and leaves a company through three different avenues operations investing and financing and this paints the overall picture of all cash flowing into and out of a company so as far as operations goes that's going to be everyday functioning of the company ongoing business operations investing is any capital assets or securities uh any money the company is putting into investments um looking to you know grow or preserve the value of their money and then financing is any capital raising or payment of dividends that's all going to be outlined and spelled out on that cash flow statement so between the balance sheet the income statement and the cash flow statement you're going to get a really good overall picture of the financial health of this company now i know we discussed this earlier but i want to circle back to the earnings report and talk more about that now because again this is one of the big distinctions between a private company and a public one so public companies are required to file quarterly earning reports and report earnings performance and in doing so they're going to provide an update to the balance sheet the cash flow statement and the income statement every three months so it's a great way to glance and look through this and make sure that your investment is still performing well and you still want to be part of this company this report also allows investors to determine the ongoing financial health of a company the main figures people pay attention to are the earnings per share revenue and guidance so if you don't want to get into any massively difficult analysis you can pretty much focus on those three things here earnings per share is the amount of earnings after paying all of the related expenses per share then we have the revenue and then we have the guidance and essentially guidance is when a company gives forward looking assumptions based on how they expect to do in the future and again wall street analysts base buy and sell recommendations off of these quarterly earnings reports so you should at the very least have a general idea of your stocks that you own when their earnings report is because at the very least it's good to just tune into it and listen or just be aware that on an earnings day you could see a lot of movement in that share price now in that earnings report it often provides a comparison to the previous quarter as well as the year-over-year comparison because what they're showing you is how are they doing from a year prior versus the quarter prior earnings reports also typically include a narrative from the ceo about what is seen in the report and the ceo is like the leader the chief executive officer of a company uh companies also file a document called the 10-q which provides a more comprehensive report the 10-q usually comes out a few days or weeks following the quarterly earnings report i don't typically look at that 10q um i keep an eye on when companies are reporting earnings and i typically only tune in to like the big earnings reports for like apple microsoft etc because these companies tend to be the bellwether uh for tech in general so i do have like 20 different stocks 25 or so that i own i don't go and listen to every earnings report but i do keep a general idea on what's going on with these companies and i tune in for those big earnings reports so i know we mentioned this earlier but i want to briefly talk a bit more about earnings per share and remember this is where we derive the p e ratio from you take the price per share divided by the earnings per share and that gives you the price to earnings ratio so just to make sure let's go over quick and explain what earnings per share means well earnings per share is going to be the bread and butter of the quarterly earnings report it's going to be an indication of what the company earned per share in the previous quarter so they basically take the total amount of earnings that the company had which is the money after revenue came in they pay expensive than the expenses and then they pay other things then they have earnings this is the earnings per share um it's how much you earned they take total earnings divided by all shares out there and that is your earnings per share which is an indicator of the profitability of a company beating or falling under the eps forecast can send a stock soaring or tumbling as we talked about earlier and remember it is in the best interest of an analyst to provide an accurate estimate now you are going to laugh once you start investing because some of these analysts you look at how wrong they are and you're like how are they this far off with their guesses about these things but these are teams of people that literally spend hours a day just researching these companies selling these reports to wall street investors so this is what they do in and out but to be honest with you guys i always like to make my own decisions about my investments i typically don't really care what analysts have to say but you know it is something to consider that they are placing bets on how they expect a company to perform and if a company beats or misses those expectations it can be a very volatile time for a stock um for example i can remember back at one point when i owned shares of advanced micro devices amd they had an earnings report that fell short of expectations and the stock dropped like 24 percent so sometimes there are massive moves surrounding quarterly earnings and then to share a bit more detail on that guidance in my opinion this is probably one of the most important if not the most important parts of an earnings report known as the company guidance it's an indication of an estimate this is simply an estimate of the future earnings performance of that company and it typically includes revenue earnings per share margin and estimates of ongoing capital expenditures guidance is not required but large reputable companies tend to provide these estimates to investors um there's a lot of talk out there whether or not this forward-looking guidance is even helpful because it typically causes companies to have to make short-term moves to please investors but for the time being it's still common for large publicly traded companies to issue forward-looking guidance so i would always look for a company that is raising guidance and if you hear about that if you hear like a company reported earnings and raised guidance that means that they expect to have better numbers better sales figures or whatever in the coming months than their original estimate so that's always a very positive sign to see so just for a quick recap here of fundamental stock analysis number one learn about the management of a company be like warren buffett he invests in good management because they are the captain of the ship and if management is being dishonest typically that's going to be a bad experience as a new investor number two read through the vision or outlook report or the annual report i always like reading apples and a couple of large companies because it gives you a really good idea of what the company is working on and where they are heading when i say study the balance sheets really what i mean is look through it once and understand you know how much debt does this company have versus assets and you know what kind of situation are they in with their money uh analyzing the income statement allows you to understand how you know revenue and sales are growing or changing and is profitability changing as well the cash flow statement is going to help you understand the movement of cash in and out of that company and then reading the quarterly earnings reports is going to help you stay updated provide you with updates on those key financial documents and if you want to uncover even more information you can wait for that 10q to come out which should have even more in-depth information about the company's performance in that previous quarter so that's the gist on fundamental analysis there guys we talked a lot about goodwill as well and how that brand can have a lot of value and so one thing i wanted to mention as well here is that i always look for companies that have a strong well-known and reputable brand because that can always help out in terms of you know people continuing to utilize those goods or services that's why i love apple people love the brand are very loyal to them and they will likely continue to be for years to come also another thing i want to mention here is i tend to look for companies that do have high barriers to entry whether it be patents research and development talent etc i go into a lot more detail about that in my video on how i pick my stocks and i talk about something called a moat or barriers to entry for a um for business and guys honestly like this video is super long as it is so i had to trim some fat here and there so if you want to learn more about that check out that other supplemental video the card is still in the corner but that's another important factor i look at is the moat that a company has or what is protecting them from new entrants and new competitors that being said i want to shift gears now and talk about industries versus sectors and how to do some analysis of um businesses as a whole in terms of like an entire area of the economy rather than looking at one specific business so most people blur the lines between sectors and industries and it's kind of important to understand the differences between these two groups because trends can exist within certain sectors and industries you have something called sector rotation which is when money moves out of one area of the economy and moves into another for example we said money was flying into tech over the summer and out of financials and then the opposite happened where money was flying into financials recently and flowing out of tech so it's always good to keep an eye on these trends understand what is the hot sector or industry right now and what is the dog because when the sectors rotate and the tables turn there's always the potential for good opportunities there so let's start off by talking about what a sector is a sector is simply a group of related industries and it's a broad group of correlating industries that all follow the same trends for example the energy sector includes companies involved with the supply as well as the production of energy even though there's two industries in there electrical supply and electrical uh production and then distribution would be a third one you know those are all correlating together in the same sector but they're parts of a different industry this includes a number of different industries for example oil or gas drilling exploration and refining integrated power organizations all these industries impact the others within the energy sector so sector is kind of a larger parent category and industry is a smaller child category and within that industry you'd have specific businesses doing exactly whatever that business activity is so that is what a sector is so then we have an industry an industry is an isolated business activity serving more specific group rather than a whole sector it's often referred to as a sub sector as it is a component of a larger group or like i said a child category of the larger parent category which would be a sector for example the semiconductor industry is a collection of companies that design and fabricate semiconductor devices the semiconductor industry is an isolated group of companies within the technology sector so you can go broad and look at a sector or you can look at a particular industry falling within that sector so hopefully you can start to see where there's good potential here to get a bird's-eye view of kind of like how all of these different businesses are doing from a top level down and then you can get more granular and see okay within the energy sector what industries are the winners and what are the losers and then once you pick an industry you can get more granular and start looking for maybe one of the strongest links of that chain rather than investing in you know the the lagger you want to typically look for one of the leaders of an industry but now i want to further complicate things here but it's actually pretty interesting because within industries there's two main types cyclical industries and then there's defensive industries and both are actually good at different times the performance of cyclical industries correlates with the performance of the underlying economy so essentially in a booming economy in a bull market when people have more spending money in their pockets the cyclical industries do very well and they typically outperform the defensive industries however in a sluggish economy in a bear market when people don't have a lot of extra spending money the cyclical industries under perform the defensive industries because they typically hold up better cyclical industries are sensitive while defensive industries are durable and we're going to cover examples of both of these shortly so with defensive industries goods and services are purchased no matter what the underlying economy is doing they're more durable and they typically hold up better in a bear market during a bull market these companies tend to underperform or not do as well as the broad market or these cyclical industries because more spending is not necessarily directed to these industries so just to give you an example here a defensive industry would be consumer staples um and we're going to use procter and gamble because procter gamble makes a lot of toothpaste and personal hygiene products so for example we don't brush our teeth 10 times a day in a booming economy we're still going to just brush our teeth you know hopefully twice a day maybe once a day just because the economy is doing good you're not going to celebrate by doing extra tooth brushing maybe you should but most people wouldn't meanwhile though if we're talking about like hilton stock or like an airline stock we do travel and spend more money at restaurants and bars in a good economy so when the economy is good we're going to see about the same level of spending directed towards defensive industries and when the economy is bad we're going to see about the same level of spending directed to those industries like you're gonna buy toilet paper no matter what the underlying economy is doing so if you like that idea i really do enjoy investing in defensive industries the only issue is when we're in a long bull market they tend to underperform so one of my favorite defensive stocks that i own is national grid it's a utility stock very boring very consistent investment but i would challenge you guys you know take a peek at the performance of that stock and how utility stocks held up during the global pandemic because most of them did not sell off nearly as much as the tech stocks or some of these more cyclical industries now this is one word of caution i want to give you here and it's about a quote which is a rising tide lifts all boats often times when there's sector rotation going on and money is flowing out of one area and into another um all of the companies within that sector or industry are going to do well too and so oftentimes some companies that may not be the most quality investments will have their share prices rising as well just because of the prevailing trend and the rising tide lifting up all boats however this is why it's so important to understand how to perform some basic fundamental analysis because let's say for example you want to invest in uh technology and you want to invest in the semiconductor industry there's a lot of different chip companies you could choose from so rather than just throwing a dart at the board it's good to be able to understand okay let me look at which ones pay dividends how long have they paid those dividends cool all right let's look at the p e ratio and then compare it to the peg maybe one company has a high p e ratio but a lower p e g because they're expected to do better in the future so now that you understand how to conduct some basic fundamental analysis you can figure out what industry or sector is doing well find a bunch of companies in that area of business and then skim through them and do a little bit of analysis to understand you know which one may be the strongest link of that chain so here is two pieces of advice i have here guys not financial advice obviously this is just what's worked well for me in the past um again always do your own research before picking stocks guys but this is what has worked well for me if you are looking at a defensive industry look for the well established leaders with a long track record of success that is typically what i look for in a defensive industry so for example with consumer staples procter and gamble one of the stocks i own is a perfect fit because they are an established leader with a very long track record of success if you're looking at a cyclical industry i always say look for the innovators the leaders the ones on the cutting edge that's typically what i look for because that often translates to growth however there is one caveat there be careful with those innovative companies because they often end up being the market high flyers make sure you're also combining that with fundamental analysis looking at the p e p e g ratio and just making sure that the stock is not totally overvalued before you begin purchasing shares also another question i like to ask myself when um looking for new investments is who has possible solutions to the big problems or mega trends so i sit down and i think about what are the biggest problems socially that we're facing right now and who is poised well to solve them that is oftentimes a good way to like unearth companies that you may have never ordinarily thought of to invest in but i try to you know think about things in more of a backwards way than most people would in terms of finding stocks to invest in and in terms of mega trends you guys can google that and look at what are some of these current trends right now that are going to be going on for the next 10 15 years so we talked about this earlier but i want to briefly touch on again sector rotation it's one of my favorite uh phenomenons because it allows you to potentially unearth some opportunities sector rotation is often a great strategy for more active investors who don't want to just put their money in index funds or etfs for the next 15 years this is the process of moving investments from one industry or sector to another based on the underlying economic trends for example if an investor for example if investor sentiment is looking bearish you could rotate sectors and move away from the cyclical industries and invest in the defensive industries so i'm i typically would not recommend making any jump or rash decisions but let's say for example you loaded up on tech stocks and then three months later you were up like 40 or 50 percent and you were getting nervous you could sell off some of those profits and instead put that money in a defensive industry or sector or something else that you think might do better later so for me as i said i bought tech early over the summer of 2020 it pushed up i had major gains sold them off and rotated into financials then money moved over to financials i sold off some of the bank of america stock rolled it back into blue chip tech because of the fact that it was selling off so i don't make these moves very often maybe like two three times a year um but it is a way to potentially you know add some value to your portfolio if you can keep up with these broad market trends so now what we're going to cover here is an index just so you guys have a better idea where this term is derived from and what exactly it means an index summarizes the performance of a group of securities or stocks major indexes summarize the performance of an entire group and there's indexes for certain classifications such as what exchange they trade on in a given market region so there's all kinds of indexes out there they can track u.s listed stocks toronto stocks chinese stocks there's all kinds of indexes out there but the main ones that we use here in the u.s are the nasdaq new york stock exchange and the s p 500 as an index of all of these stocks it tracks the performance of all of them and gives us a benchmark on how these broad markets are doing and then we have benchmarks from exchanges all over the world so we can compare the u.s markets to the european markets the global markets etc etc so that is the usefulness of an index but not only can you just use an index to view a overall snapshot of the whole market you're also able to invest directly in indexes in a very low fee manner and purchase a little piece of all of those different companies so just for example here guys the nasdaq is a major exchange in the us if you wanted to own every share of companies in the nasdaq you could purchase the fidelity nasdaq composite etf and own a small piece of every little company and big company on the nasdaq uh the next one here the s p 500 that is the 500 largest publicly traded companies one of the most popular investments out there is vo the vanguard 500 etf low fees you simply own a small piece of the 500 largest publicly traded companies the cool thing is too these etfs typically pay dividends so every quarter all of those small dividends that you earn from those hundreds of companies get pooled together you earn one big dividend um collectively from all of those companies and then you can either take that money and direct it elsewhere or reinvest that money back into the etf to earn compound interest so this slide here guys just shows you a couple of popular vanguard etfs just so you see some options of what's available out there with the corresponding expense ratio and guys honestly as far as etfs go you really can't go wrong with vanguard or blackrock or a lot of fidelity or schwab products they're all pretty low expense ratios these days and we're talking about you know less than 0.1 of a percent for some of these funds i'm not going to go through them but you can pause this if you want to look through these and just so you see you know there's um u.s markets total world stock emerging markets bond markets there's a reit etf and even within vanguard they have industry and sector specific etfs so if you wanted to just invest in financials as a whole there's a vanguard etf that allows you to own a small piece of all the financial companies so you can pick a stock if you want to try to pick one winner of the group or if you just think an entire area of the economy is going to do well you can just buy an etf and if the whole sector or industry does well you do well too now if you're looking to do some research on etfs i like the sector etf channel they're not a sponsor they haven't paid me and it's a completely free service etf.com channels slash sectors it gives you a really good way to sort through all kinds of different etfs available and there may be etfs that you have never even come across that being said watch out for anything that's leveraged you see this bullish 3x right here that means that there's actually leverage at play in that etf which simply means it's going to move up or down at a multiple of whatever the underlying thing it's tracking does so just be careful with that i don't get into any leveraged etfs or inverse etfs um i would uh 100 recommend stay away from them and if you decide to do them do a lot of research so if you see like 3x or leveraged or inverse or short things like that that's not the type of etf you want to buy and obviously guys before you pick a random etf to invest in make sure you do some research on it and fully understand how this investment vehicle works and what has to happen in the market for you to make money from this particular investment okay guys so now we're gonna cover investment taxes i know this is probably a boring subject but i'm going to show you how to maximize the amount of money you keep in your pocket with investments in the stock market because at the end of the day what you keep is more important than what you make this is going to be an overview of the taxes you will pay likely as an investor the most common ones for common situations however this is not a replacement for a consultation with a tax advisor i am not a tax advisor and this is not going to be like individual specific advice for any one person i always recommend seeking out the advice of a qualified tax professional so essentially with taxes associated with the stock market taxes incurred from investments are not created equally and the way the current tax system is written it favors long-term investing strategies not to mention if you learn the actual tax brackets what you often find is that the more money you make the more savings there is associated with being a long-term investor versus a short-term trader so this is why i follow a mostly long-term investing strategy because i want to make sure that i'm keeping most of what i'm earning rather than earning a lot but giving most of it away in taxes so essentially your investments can be taxed as ordinary income or long-term capital gains depending on how long you've held on to that investment as far as ordinary income that's the same tax rate you're paying from the income from your job if your investments fall under the classification of ordinary income they are taxed at the same rate as your wages unfortunately this is the highest tax rate you will ever pay as an investor for most cases and it is in your best interest to minimize this taxation the two types of profits recognized that fall under this are dividends as well as short-term capital gains however there is something called qualified dividends which is another story so when you own dividend stocks long-term they eventually become qualified dividends which have a favorable tax situation as well so you get the best of both worlds in my opinion with dividend investing because you can get long-term capital gains and qualified dividends which is a lot less than you're paying compared to the amount of ordinary income tax you would pay on short-term capital gains so if a stock is purchased and sold within 12 months it is going to be taxed as ordinary income at the same tax rate as the income from your job this is calculated using the date of the order execution not the settlement date the taxation system favors investors who hold on to stocks for greater than one year as traders are always taxed at the ordinary income rate so if you do hear about people talking about day trading or swing trading you can kind of quietly laugh to yourself because you understand they are paying the maximum possible taxes because all of this is short-term capital gains the real money trust me guys is all long-term capital gains qualified dividends things like that that allow you to avoid putting a lot of that money back into the government's pocket through taxes also if you do plan on doing any type of active trading i would highly recommend doing so within the roth ira retirement account as tax sheltered accounts do not incur a short-term capital gains tax so let's say for example you want to do some short-term trades but you don't necessarily want to pay taxes you could literally do that with your roth ira if you wanted to place more active trades with that and then if you have a ton of short-term capital gains as long as you follow those requirements we talked about earlier and it's a roth ira you're never going to have to pay those taxes so one of the easiest ways to cut down on your tax bill is to go long and it also cuts down on your stress if you hold a stock for longer than 12 months it is going to be taxed as a long-term capital gain the long-term capital gains tax rate has brackets based on your ordinary income tax rate however there are some important details to cover here related to investment taxation first of all you are only taxed when you sell or once a gain or loss is realized this is a major misconception out there people think that just because they bought a stock and the stock went up that they automatically have to pay taxes but what you have there is something called an unrealized capital gain and you have to realize that gain by actually selling some or all of those shares and your profit or the difference between what you bought for and what you sold for is the amount that you pay taxes on depending on how long you held that it's either going to be short-term maximum tax rate or long-term capital gains so it's very important to keep track of how long you have held onto an investment and consider the tax advantage of going long especially if you're somebody who's in the upper tax brackets also capital gains from a short sale are always taxed as ordinary income regardless of the duration so just to give you guys an example here of how this could save you money let's say your income is taxed at 35 percent and your short-term capital gains tax rate is the same at 35 however your long-term capital gains tax rate is just 15 so let's say for example you sold the stock on day 365 which means you did not hold it for longer than one year and you recognize the capital gain of ten thousand dollars you're going to pay 35 tax on that or 3500 but let's say instead you waited just one more day and sold on day 366.
You had the same capital gain of 10 000 but you only paid 15 because that is now a long-term capital gain you just went from paying 3 bucks in taxes to 1500 in this bracket the tax advantage would be 20 um this is based on a couple of years ago i'm not sure if these brackets have changed but this was a real example um from when i did this here so i recommend looking at the tax bracket yourself and comparing your short-term versus long-term capital gains rate and the difference between the the two is the amount that you save by going long and then there's another fun category called the capital loss if you lose money on an investment and you recognize a loss by selling this is considered to be a capital loss and a capital loss is typically deductible and a capital loss is typically deductible and it can be used to offset other income from a capital gain there are limitations to what you can deduct from your taxes so again talk to your tax advisor but based on the current tax rules you can deduct three thousand dollars of capital losses from your taxes each year and anything above and beyond that can be deducted in the following years so where this becomes relevant is oftentimes you'll find that investors will unload a position in maybe like you know november december or january or so where this comes into play is sometimes you'll find investors unloading positions in november or december that they've held on to all year they've been waiting to see what they do and if it ended up being a losing position and they changed their mind a lot of people sell their crap in november and december and take a loss to offset capital gains for that tax year or potentially take a small loss to offset some of their other income so i don't recommend it it's still a loss you're still losing money but just understand that if you if you do lose money on a stock it will offset your total capital gains anyways guys there you have it thank you so much for sticking around here i really hope i added a ton of value here to you guys in this video like i said um there's no pitch there's no course nothing like that here guys this right here is as close as it comes to a full-blown course for you i really hope this helped you out if you want to help me out in return number one maybe share this video with a friend or if you happen to be on you know stock trading forums or discords you know pass the video around that way other people can see it and learn from this resource i'm also going to give you guys a couple of bonuses here if you want them number one the entire slideshow presentation is available for free right now for download you don't even have to sign up for anything that's going to be down in the description below if you want a full copy of this presentation also as i mentioned i'm putting together a free resource updating you on the most current best stock promotions if you're looking to get some free stocks for signing up for a brokerage i'm going to update that at least every month with the most current promotions to make sure you guys are getting the best of what's available there's a lot of free stock offers there like i said companies like robinhood and m1 finance they're also you know looking to um grow their customer base and they're all competing with each other i also have links to that full video on how i pick my stocks for beginners that's a good supplement to this as well as a full 50 minute video specifically on my style of dividend investing i invest with m1 finance that's the brokerage i use i also have a free training down below in the description that will walk you through step by step how i got started with my six figure dividend stock portfolio and then lastly guys if you're looking to do some research on different investing apps out there hop on over to investingsimple.com and we'll be sure to help you out with navigating you towards you know the best app based on your needs but thank you so much guys for sticking around if you made it to the very end drop me a comment with your favorite color i'm always curious how many people actually make it subscribe if you haven't already hit that bell for future notifications and i hope to see you guys in the next video